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Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

One of the most notable aspects of later medieval immigration is the sheer range of different nationalities entering England, and the differing patterns of their distribution across the various parts of the country. The alien subsidy returns are by far our most abundant and significant source in this respect. As noted in chapter 3 , the assessors of these taxes were not actually required to provide a nationality label for the people enumerated, but merely to vouch that they were indeed aliens. The recording of nationality was therefore an ‘optional extra’ for

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Abstract only
James Naus

recording the scattered bits of news trickling in from the crusading host in Syria. And thus, interspersed in what was otherwise a secular, family history, is extensive material relating to the progress of the First Crusade. Even before the expedition had reached Jerusalem and fulfilled its prophetic mission, it seems that stories of crusading heroism were commanding the attention of western audiences. It is also worth emphasizing that many of those who undertook the monumental task of writing about the First Crusade had a difficult time finding

in Constructing kingship
Abstract only
Gottschalk of Orbais and the predestination controversy in the archdiocese of Rheims
Matthew Bryan Gillis

offered him the Eucharist should he recant his heresy. 94 Gottschalk refused and died surrounded by the monks of Hautvillers, who honoured him by preserving his ‘pious memory’ ( pia memoria ) in the necrologium , recording that he had been ‘falsely accused, hastily judged, and unjustly condemned’ ( falso criminatus, praecipitanter iudicatus, et iniuste damnatus ). 95 Such an epitaph highlights the limitations of Hincmar’s ability to keep order in his own see. The fact that the sole surviving manuscript of most of Gottschalk’s theological writings was probably copied

in Hincmar of Rheims
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

, letters of denization had generally been granted at the rate of about ten per year, spiking in 1535, when 164 were issued. 69 Now, quite suddenly, there was an explosion of applications, such as to necessitate the creation of new Chancery rolls recording the resulting royal grants. The first of these rolls, which seems to have been compiled between 1539 and 1541, contains 446 grants made to people mainly from France but also from Scotland, the Low Countries, Iberia, Italy and Scandinavia. 70 The outbreak of the so-called Italian War of 1542

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Colin Veach

. Longford), which amounted to all of Bréifne, from William to Áed.136 Although Hugh de Lacy’s rebellion (discussed in Chapter 7 below) meant that the king ordered the transference of lordship over Bréifne from William to Áed,137 William did not give up so easily. The Bréifne poem contains two verses on William which suggest that he was active in Bréifne about 1226. After recording the destruction of the ecclesiastical site of Fenagh by the English, and the slaying of Áed Ua Ruairc (which occurred in 1226),138 it declares: Stoutly will I avenge My church upon the

in Lordship in four realms
Lindy Brady

-Welsh culture in the borderlands by recording – in contrast to Bede’s famous narrative of Edwin’s conversion, which takes up a large part of Book II of the Historia Ecclesiastica – Edwin’s earlier baptism by Rhun ap Urien of Rheged. The 27 Writing the Welsh borderlands Annales Cambriae records that ‘Etguin baptizatus est, et Run filius Urbgen baptizavit eum’ (Edwin is baptised, and Rhun son of Urien baptised him).16 The Historia Brittonum preserves a slightly longer narrative: ‘Eadguin vero in sequenti Pasca baptismum suscepit et duodecim milia hominum baptizati sunt cum

in Writing the Welsh borderlands in Anglo-Saxon England
Lindy Brady

army, and he took him in under his protection). MS E places the blame on Ælfgar, recording that ‘utlagode mann Ælfgar eorl, forðon him man wearp on þet he wæs þes cynges swica 7 ealra landleoda’47 (men outlawed Earl Ælfgar, because he was accused as a traitor to the king and everyone in the land), and ‘he þæs geanwyrde wes ætforan eallum þam mannum þe þær gegaderode wæron, þeah him þet word ofscute his unnþances’48 (he admitted this to all the men who were meeting there, though the words shot out against his wishes), but ultimately it describes the same series of

in Writing the Welsh borderlands in Anglo-Saxon England
James Naus

Philip’s preparations, despite Rigord’s recording the departing King’s ‘Testament’ in his chronicle. 49 The document was designed to ‘set down how the necessary business of the kingdom should be managed in our absence and to make final arrangements for our life in case we should end it on the way’. 50 The bulk of Philip’s authority was vested in his mother, Adela, and his uncle, Archbishop William of Reims. The King had a particular fear of territorial aggrandizement by outside powers while he was away, and much of the Testament details the ways in which defence was

in Constructing kingship
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

remarkable eighty aliens reported in this county were the only persons assessed in their village. 87 The pattern also seems to hold in other parts of the South and East Anglia. A high proportion of Devon’s 675 assessed alien taxpayers in 1440 lived on the south coast and its estuaries, clustering in the port towns and their immediate rural hinterlands. Elsewhere in the county, however, immigrants were found scattered on the north coast and (thinly) in the rural interior, with no fewer than ninety-two settlements recording the presence of just one or two aliens in their

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Laws and intellectual disability
Irina Metzler

individual cases in the records from the thirteenth to fifteenth centuries) Clarke observed that there were a striking number of variations in phraseology, which on the one hand demonstrated a strong awareness of the existence of mental incapacity or disability, but on the other hand indicated lack of a systematic approach to mental disorder, so that individual phrases in specific cases will certainly have meant something to the people (witnesses, officials, scribes) recording the case but not necessarily to others. ‘The lack of [terminological] firmness was doubtless

in Fools and idiots?