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this girlish innocence. Ruth sets up a strong contrast between the authoritarian Bradshaw and the more flexible Benson household, in their education of boys: If another’s son turned out wild or bad, Mr Bradshaw had little sympathy; it might have been prevented by a stricter rule, or more religious life at home. . . . All children were obedient, if their parents were decided and authoritative; and every one would turn out well, if properly managed. (R: 175) Leonard’s education, on the other hand, is undertaken as ‘a series of experiments’ (R: 168) with ‘self

in Elizabeth Gaskell
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Olson: The Allegory of a Poet’s Life (New York: Norton, 1991), 147.  5 Maud, Olson at the Harbor, 129.  6 Ibid., 133; George Butterick, ‘Charles Olson and the Postmodern Advance’, Iowa Review (Fall 1980) 4–27, 12.  7 Maud, Olson at the Harbor, 133, 135, 134.  8 Emile Durkheim, Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1915), quoted in Maud Bodkin, Archetypal Patterns in Poetry: Psychological Studies of Imagination (London: Oxford University Press, 1974), 277. Like Jessie L. Weston in From Ritual to Romance (1920), Bodkin constantly equates patterns of universal experience

in Contemporary Olson
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symbol for the search, ... for modes of action through which to realise moral ideas’ (Howe, 1979: 363–4). The crux of Howe’s argument is that Jewish national aspirations could revitalise English national identity. The figure of the 125 ORPHAN TEXTS Jew offers Eliot an ethical figure in a world of ‘godlessness’; Jewish tradition offers a moral grounding for all religious life (Howe, 1979: 361). Lisbeth During picks up on the notion of a moral locus when she argues: The ethic Eliot has in mind has grown too large, too unwieldy and speculative for the terms of

in Orphan texts
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Catholicism of Lucia in Personality is characterised by a bitter acceptance that all life brings is loss and hardship, which must be endured as an expression of faith. Be Near Me depicts the complex interiority of a Catholic priest caught between faith and love, unable to communicate either sentiment to those under his pastoral care and convinced of the ritualism of the religious life only as a welcome barrier to self-knowledge. The plot is simply summarised: David Anderton, a middle-aged Catholic priest who is English by birth though with a Scottish mother, is sent to the

in Twenty-first-century fiction

The church as sacred space places the reader at the heart of medieval religious life, standing inside the church with the medieval laity in order to ask what the church meant to them and why. It examines the church as a building, idea, and community, and explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was crucial to its place at the centre of lay devotion and parish life. At a time when the parish church was facing competition for lay attention, and dissenting movements such as Lollardy were challenging the relevance of the material church, the book examines what was at stake in discussions of sanctity and its manifestations. Exploring a range of Middle English literature alongside liturgy, architecture, and material culture, the book explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was constructed and maintained for the edification of the laity. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary theoretical approaches, the book offers a reading of the church as continually produced and negotiated by the rituals, performances, and practices of its lay communities, who were constantly being asked to attend to its material form, visual decorations, and significance. The meaning of the church was a dominant question in late-medieval religious culture and this book provides an invaluable context for students and academics working on lay religious experience and canonical Middle English texts.

The Authorized Version and the Book of Common Prayer at the Restoration

more fateful one which took place at the Restoration, and which had a not dissimilar outcome. The Bible translation commissioned by King James VI and I was not universally acclaimed in its early years; but it was one aspect of religious life in England which remained largely unscathed by the upheavals of the Civil War and the Interregnum. More than that, by 1661 it had achieved such widespread acceptance across all religious factions that both Independents and the heirs of Laudian Anglo-​Catholicism demanded its official restoration. Having seen off its only real

in From Republic to Restoration
Cookery texts as a source in lived religion

investigation of the religious life of the laity in the early modern era. My own interest in recipe books as sources for religious life was sparked one afternoon when, in a class on religious life in the American South that I was teaching at the University of Virginia, a guest lecturer on Irish-Americans in the South presented several artefacts from the life of an early and mid-twentieth-century IrishAmerican woman. One of the artefacts was a commercially published day-by-day calendar in which the owner had handwritten a series of recipes. The recipes appeared to be in no

in Reading and writing recipe books, 1550–1800

between O’Brien’s novel and Antonia White’s Frost in May (1933), a work that appears, at first glance, remarkably similar. Set retrospectively, as O’Brien’s novel is, in the decade before the First World War, White’s narrative also charts the progress of a precocious, bookish young girl at an upper-class English THE EROTIC S OF LIBERAL CATHOLIC DISSENT 83 boarding school run by a French order of nuns. White shares O’Brien’s intellectual admiration for the strenuous discipline of religious life and her sensuous delight in Catholic ritual – though White takes this to

in Impure thoughts
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Representations of the house in the poetry of Eiléan Ní Chuilleanáin and Vona Groarke

concern has been evident and the built environment of her more recent poems is also culturally contextualised. Often the building may be a church or convent rather than a house. Throughout Ní Chuilleanáin’s work, religious institutions are seen to offer the security and support more usually associated with the family home and her sense of the religious community is one of female opportunity rather than limitation. ‘In Her Other Ireland’ sees the austerity of religious life bizarrely placed alongside (or within) the world of the seaside fairground, creating two opposing

in Irish literature since 1990
Catholicism, gender and race in two novels by Louise Erdrich

role of women in society, particularly with respect to American religious life. As David Hackett observes, it is significant that the protagonists of the nuns’ narratives were young Protestant women who had converted to Catholicism and become nuns. With men and women operating in increasingly ‘separate spheres’ in the nineteenth century, Protestantism ‘played an important role in shaping the idea of the true woman.’31 With the consequent ‘predominance of women in Protestant churches and new theological interpretations of a nurturing and self-sacrificing Christ

in Passing into the present