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Sally Mayall Brasher

The hospital movement of the thirteenth through fifteenth centuries in northern Italy provides a lens through which to view the transformation of political power, religious life, and the social agency of urban citizens of the region. Traditional definitions of poverty and need, as well as suggestions of a Christian's responsibility to such need, no longer satisfied city-dwellers who saw a much greater demand and variety of suffering in their community than ever before. In addition, they felt vulnerable in the face of such need. Security

in Hospitals and charity
History and context
Sally Mayall Brasher

The hospital movement in Europe arose out of a tradition of charity and religious life that originated in the earliest days of Christianity. The perception of who deserved charity and whose responsibility it was to provide such relief changed considerably by the twelfth century as the populations of cities grew and the ability of ecclesiastical institutions to serve them diminished. The perception of personal charity shifted from the idea of caritas to misericordia . Caritas , the term employed in the earlier Middle Ages, refers to

in Hospitals and charity
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Kriston R. Rennie

and governance of religious life. How and why did this custom of commendation develop throughout the early Middle Ages? How was it exercised and experienced? What did it look like and produce in practice? If the monasteries’ grand objective was freedom from outside interference, from the encroachment of secular and/or ecclesiastical lords, then it is well worth examining the papacy’s role in achieving this outcome. If episcopal power (i.e. rights and jurisdiction) encompassed spiritual and judicial control throughout a diocese, what role did the papacy exercise over

in Freedom and protection
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Lester K. Little

. 15 As one would expect of any such major reform movement, which one leading historian of the religious life has called the ‘Reformation of the Twelfth Century’, its participants ran the gamut from very moderate to very radical. 16 The context for this reformation that preceded the Reformation by four centuries was the series of social and economic transformations that we have been referring to as the ‘Commercial Revolution’. Some of the new religious initiatives began in the countryside and others in cities, and yet all of them

in Indispensable immigrants
Lester K. Little

recitations of prayers and keeping track of them by fingering beads – another successful bit of acculturation. 29 More revolutionary still was the movement to involve the laity in the sacrament of the Eucharist, the theology of which was worked out definitively only in the course of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. By legislation passed at the Fourth Lateran Council in Rome in 1215, each layperson was to go to confession and subsequently to take communion at least once a year. To get this new role in the religious life accepted by laypeople

in Indispensable immigrants
Lester K. Little

male. Raymond took the child secretly to a church and prayed before a crucifix that the Lord not separate this child from his siblings. The divine response was instead to take the life of his wife, so at least he would engender no new children and his son could grow up to join the religious life. Raymond handed the child over to his in-laws and took off on what he thought was henceforth his true vocation, namely a pilgrimage junket to Santiago in Spain, the Magdalene in Provence, Saint-Anthony in Padua, and then Rome, whence he planned to go to the Holy Land. But one

in Indispensable immigrants
Lester K. Little

France to read and transcribe medieval manuscripts. 20 Out of these voyages littéraires as they called them came the dictionary of medieval Latin produced by Charles Du Cange; the classic study of the forms of medieval documents by Jean Mabillon; and the vast collections of texts on the religious life by Luc d’Achery, of royal charters by Etienne Baluze, and of liturgical texts by Edmond Martène – all these published between 1655 and 1738. They remain today indispensable tools for practitioners of the medievalist’s trade. The Italian

in Indispensable immigrants
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Hincmar’s world
Rachel Stone

birthplace. 8 Hincmar himself states that he was ‘raised from the beginnings of infancy’ at the monastery of St-Denis. 9 He was probably a child oblate, and thus may have been barely weaned when he first entered religious life. 10 Hincmar obviously won favour with the abbot of St-Denis, Hilduin, who took him to Emperor Louis the Pious’s court, where Hilduin was arch-chaplain (head of the palace clergy), to continue his education. 11 This was at some point during the early or mid-820s, a formative moment in Hincmar’s life, when he met figures like Adalard, Charlemagne

in Hincmar of Rheims
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Kathleen G. Cushing

’s place in society. 2 Although the equation of Church and society can by and large be used to describe the condition of earlier medieval Europe as well, it is the argument of this book that during the course of the eleventh century the symbiosis of Church and society became more pronounced. This, of course, was a consequence of the movement for ecclesiastical reform. Indeed, as it will be argued, the attempt to improve standards in religious life had a revolutionary impact on eleventh-century European society. Although these efforts emerged initially at local levels

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
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Alison I. Beach, Shannon M.T. Li and Samuel S. Sutherland

Introduction The prologue to the CP opens a window on the religious landscape of the Middle Ages, offering a vital witness to the spiritual values espoused by Hirsau-oriented monks in the early decades of the twelfth century. This opening book of the Chronicle reads as a kind of manifesto – a forceful assertion of the apostolic foundations of traditional cenobitic monasticism in the Hirsau mode, and may indeed have been written originally as a standalone treatise on religious life. The monks’ habit, tonsure, retreat from the world, strict enclosure, and the

in Monastic experience in twelfth-century Germany