of the tune and words to ‘God Save the King’ is not known.
However, early versions of the song date back to Jacobite drinking songs
of the late eighteenth century, which were written in support of the exiled
Stuart monarch, James II. The song gained popularity in England in 1745
when a new arrangement by Thomas Arne was played at Drury Lane
Theatre in support of George II following the defeat of the British by the
Jacobites, led by Bonnie Prince Charlie, at Prestonpans (Ibid., pp. 60–72).
27 People devoted to a religiouslife.
28 Blood-soaked field – a direct
recasting of religiouslife – occupied the position of keystones
for pre-Reformation liturgical life and experience. However, the model
of liturgical practice offered for such emulation has still not been
investigated in any detail.
Westminster Abbey was undergoing substantial structural
expansion by the late fourteenth century, enlarging its sphere of
influence to serve both its immediate surroundings (the
secular business, including the local
We must conclude that, while Duffy may overdo the
communitarianism of gentry religiouslife, the argument that their faith
was divorced from that of ordinary parishioners either ideologically or
physically is far-fetched. But, even if we accept that many of the
gentry participated, at least to some extent, in a vibrant communal faith, it
virtue (human agency), Christian marriage and the monastic or religiouslife. Their commentaries thereon are heavy with implications for religious porosity, and at the same time suggest that the path back to porosity coincides with Taylor’s distinction of the ‘open’ immanent frame which describes how buffered interiority can be responsive to a transcendent meaning and purpose from without. 1
It would be wrong to reduce the complaints of the French and English Catholic authors about secular morals simply to a lament over moral decadence in
communities, populations in flux etc. – tended to contribute to the privatisation and compartmentalisation of religiouslife and to the organisation of activities by the State. Religiosity might arguably create a more favourable environment for resistance to secularisation, but, again as we have argued, secularisation is more reliably identified by the tendency to place private religious authority over the ecclesial. In this sense, the towns, with their more fragmented communities, arguably provided more propitious conditions in which secularisation could flourish