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St Michael and All Angels, Sowton and St Mary the Virgin, Ottery St Mary

the central scene, flanked by two further scenes from the Life of Christ. Below small scenes depict Old Testament types of baptism and a New Testament baptism scene. The relevant quotation from the litany underlines the high-church emphasis on this sacrament: ‘By thy Baptism Good Lord deliver us.’ The west window, placed directly above the door, depicts three archangels with text referring to the Last Judgment. The quotations

in Stained Glass and the Victorian Gothic Revival
From Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry to British Romantic art

The challenge of the sublime argues that the unprecedented visual inventiveness of the Romantic period in Britain could be seen as a response to theories of the sublime, more specifically to Edmund Burke’s Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). While it is widely accepted that the Enquiry contributed to shaping the thematics of terror that became fashionable in British art from the 1770s, this book contends that its influence was of even greater consequence, paradoxically because of Burke’s conviction that the visual arts were incapable of conveying the sublime. His argument that the sublime was beyond the reach of painting, because of the mimetic nature of visual representation, directly or indirectly incited visual artists to explore not just new themes, but also new compositional strategies and even new or undeveloped pictorial and graphic media, such as the panorama, book illustrations and capricci. More significantly, it began to call into question mimetic representational models, causing artists to reflect about the presentation of the unpresentable and the inadequacy of their endeavours, and thus drawing attention to the process of artistic production itself, rather than the finished artwork. By revisiting the links between eighteenth-century aesthetic theory and visual practices, The challenge of the sublime establishes new interdisciplinary connections which address researchers in the fields of art history, cultural studies and aesthetics.

. For example, the Tractarian emphasis on the spiritual authority of the priest, and the sacraments he performed, was physically expressed through large chancels and ornate baptisteries. The correct chancel, as recommended by the CCS, should be large (about one third of the length of the nave), separated from the nave by a step on the floor and a chancel arch above, and it should be decorated with a richness (in stained glass

in Stained Glass and the Victorian Gothic Revival

baptistery, and the two small scenes in the tracery depict the Anointing of David by Samuel and the Baptism of Christ: two typological references to the sacrament of baptism. The Anointing of David is a rare subject in Early Victorian stained glass and this points towards the intervention by the patron. 40 Other windows at Langford Budville, also commissioned by a Sotheby, consist of medallions containing symbols of the Crucifixion

in Stained Glass and the Victorian Gothic Revival
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Red train journeys

Masses, entitled ‘E. (i.o.u.) Noncummings’. Schneider made a piquant reference to Eimi: ‘unlife and non-men are laid out in this poetry as they packed the morgue-like vaults of his Hearstian Russian Diary’.36 In a stirring broadside to modernist poetry, he proclaimed: The culture of capitalism is dying varied deaths. Where it does not disappear through sheer neglect, where it does not run for the last sacrament to the church like T. S. Eliot, where it does not starve itself to death before the urns of tradition like Allen Tate, it gyrates to death in the St. Vitus

in Watching the red dawn
Exhibitors and their networks

would be purchased, to save return shipping costs and justify the costs associated with taking part. In this regard, after the 1880–​81 Melbourne Exhibition, it probably came as a relief to Mayer & Co. that the Archbishop of Melbourne, James Goold (1812–​ 86), purchased two windows on behalf of St Patrick’s Roman Catholic Cathedral, Melbourne, which was then still under construction.89 These windows, which depict King Melchizedek and The Last Supper, were installed in the Blessed Sacrament Chapel on the northern side of the apse and are the only German

in Windows for the world
Academic compromises

copious, beautifully diffusive, and magnificent, than the eloquence of Raffael’s dispute of the Sacrament –​nothing can be more condensed and vehement in its address than his Elymas, and Death of Ananias; than the Plague and Deluge of Poussin; the dead Christ of Carrache, in the Palais 120 121 The sublime contained Royale; the Possessed Boy, by Domenichino; and above all, the group of Laocoon, in the Belvedere.25 In these lines, the comparison of the arts, and the reference to painting’s eloquence, is clearly anchored in an academic discourse which takes for

in The challenge of the sublime
The moral life and the state

Church rivalry placed different emphases on such matters as liturgy and the sacraments and on the interpretation of scripture, with the High Church tending to more traditional, ceremonial, and ritual approaches and the Low to more evangelical practices. In spite of these differences, generally speaking, the Church of England made it possible for individuals to approach the question of spiritual truth in many different ways; importantly, as a National Church, it guaranteed Protestant independence from Rome. By mid-century, the Broad Church movement emerged, drawing

in Julia Margaret Cameron’s ‘fancy subjects’