The sacrament Socinianized:
Benjamin Hoadly and the Eucharist
he Eucharist long exerted centripetal and centrifugal forces on Christianity,
and the Church of England’s formularies captured why that was the
case. The Thirty-Nine Articles declared that the sacraments were ‘ordained
of Christ’ and were ‘not only badges or tokens of Christian men’s profession,
but rather … certain sure witnesses, and effectual signs of grace, and God’s
good will towards us, by which he doth work invisibly in us, and doth not only
quicken, but also strengthen and
type of rhetoric, of course, was scarcely an innovation in the late tenth and eleventh centuries, although, as will be seen, both its prevalence and vehemence was revolutionary. As any historian of the late antique and medieval Church can testify, ecclesiastical sources are full of references to concerns about ritual purity and fears of contamination from an early date. For instance, Irish texts such as the mid-sixth-century Vinnian and mid-seventh-century Cummean penitentials repeatedly display anxiety about the purity of the sacraments and those who handled them
of the Supper of the Lord
in its sale and application for others (i.e. oﬀering masses for other people).
Here the entire theory of Sacriﬁce was set forth and the use of the Sacraments
was shown. And when pious men in the Monasteries now heard that they must
ﬂee from Idols, they began to depart from their impious servitude.
Therefore Luther added to the explanation of the doctrines on penance, the
remission of sins, faith, and indulgences, also these topics: the diﬀerence between
divine and human laws, the doctrine on the use of the Supper of the Lord and
those who were now to be excluded from a share in a family’s wealth also had to be kept from marriage and having children, it was crucial to establish what actually constituted legitimate Christian marriage, as well as to underline who was, and who was not, permitted to marry. The Church, however, had never defined this precisely. Indeed throughout the earlier middle ages and well into the eleventh century, marriage was not considered to be a sacrament, and in fact was something over which the Church had little if any control. 28 This remained the case up to the
condemnation of the British Government in 1920. The
bishops accused republicans of attacking their country as if it were a
foreign power. They declared that they had no legitimate authority for
their campaign and, more signiﬁcantly, branded the republican movement as being inherently opposed to Catholic doctrine. ‘In spite of their
obvious sin and the fact of their unlawful rebellion’, they went on, ‘they
still play the role of good Catholics and demand the Sacraments’.
Consequently, the bishops moved to cut republicans oﬀ from the
Church. All those who participated in the
was in relation to baptised slaves
that the question of freedom might even become urgent. The sacrament was the most pressing preoccupation for those m
who worked amongst the slave population. Receiving baptism
also appears to have been popular amongst slaves themselves,
and Peabody has explored a number of reasons for the receptivity
of slaves to baptism, including African religious syncretism and
frontiers of servitude
the possibilities of social and linguistic advancement offered by
baptism.219 In 1667, Du Tertre estimated the number of
Exempla, the stories with which preachers enlivened their sermons and impressed salutary moral lessons on their hearers, have long been appreciated as a source of key importance for medieval history. They played an important part in popular preaching and yet, for all the work being published on preaching and on the mendicant orders more generally, little of the abundant primary material is available in English translation. This book presents translation material from two collections of exempla assembled in the British Isles in the last quarter of the thirteenth century. One, the Liber Exemplorum (LE), was compiled by an English Franciscan working in Ireland. The other, probably the work of an English Dominican based in Cambridge (DC), is represented by fifty-two stories, about one-sixth of the total. These two collections are important because they are among the earliest to survive from the British Isles. Their short, pithy narratives are not limited to matters of Church doctrine and practice, but touch on a wide range of more mundane matters and provide vivid snapshots of medieval life in the broadest sense. The first part of the collection is chiefly devoted to Christ and the Virgin, the Mass and the saving power of the Cross. The second part has exempla on a wide variety of doctrinal, moral and other topics. These include the vices, the virtues, the sacraments and church practice, and the sins and other failings thought to beset particular professions or groups.
Reformation without end reinterprets the English Reformation. No one in eighteenth-century England thought that they lived during ‘the Enlightenment’. Instead, they thought that they still faced the religious, intellectual and political problems unleashed by the Reformation, which began in the sixteenth century. They faced those problems, though, in the aftermath of two bloody seventeenth-century political and religious revolutions. This book is about the ways the eighteenth-century English debated the causes and consequences of those seventeenth-century revolutions. Those living in post-revolutionary England conceived themselves as living in the midst of the very thing which they thought had caused the revolutions: the Reformation. The reasons for and the legacy of the Reformation remained hotly debated in post-revolutionary England because the religious and political issues it had generated remained unresolved and that irresolution threatened more civil unrest. For this reason, most that got published during the eighteenth century concerned religion. This book looks closely at the careers of four of the eighteenth century’s most important polemical divines, Daniel Waterland, Conyers Middleton, Zachary Grey and William Warburton. It relies on a wide range of manuscript sources, including annotated books and unpublished drafts, to show how eighteenth-century authors crafted and pitched their works.
This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.
This book aims to revisit the county study as a way into understanding the
dynamics of the English civil war during the 1640s. It explores gentry culture
and the extent to which early Stuart Cheshire could be said to be a ‘county
community’. It investigates the responses of the county’s governing elite and
puritan religious establishment to highly polarising interventions by the
central government and Laudian ecclesiastical authorities during Charles I’s
Personal Rule. The second half of the book provides a rich and detailed analysis
of the petitioning movements and side-taking in Cheshire during 1641-42. This
important contribution to understanding the local origins and outbreak of civil
war in England will be of interest to all students and scholars studying the