within Christian Europe; but it also spread certain unifying key ideas and the names of key authors who symbolized different schools of interpretations.
One of these key ideas was the claim that religious faith was a private matter. This notion was formulated by several authors; the most famous were Martin Luther and Jean Calvin. Luther formulated the first, more obedient and passive challenge to the established doctrine that religious faith was demonstrated in acts – generally by participation in public ceremonies and sacraments. Since sacraments could not be