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This book demonstrates the continuities and the changes in wartime nursing during the one hundred years, from 1854 to 1953. It examines the work that nurses of many differing nations undertook during the Crimean War, the Boer War, the Spanish Civil War, both World Wars and the Korean War. The influence that Florence Nightingale had on Southern women providing nursing care to Confederate soldiers during the American Civil War, and the work of the flight nurses, are detailed. The book also examines the challenges faced by nurses caring for the thousands of soldiers suffering from typhoid epidemics, and those at the Norwegian Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (NORMASH). The decades following the Crimean War witnessed a burgeoning of personal narratives relating accounts of nurses who ministered to combatants in the Franco-Prussian and Anglo-Zulu wars. In considering the work of First World War military nurses, the book explores the dangerous military and political worlds in which nurses negotiated their practice. The book argues that the air evacuation system which had originated during the Second World War was an exciting nursing innovation for the service of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). At the beginning of the Second Anglo-Boer War, there were three distinct groups of female nurses: the Army Nursing Reserve; civilian nurses; and volunteers, many of whom came under the auspices of the Red Cross. The humanitarian work of trained and volunteer nurses after the liberation of Bergen-Belsen in 1945, and their clinical wisdom enabled many of the victims to rehabilitate.

Charlotte Dale

3 The social exploits and behaviour of nurses during the Anglo-Boer War, 1899–19021 Charlotte Dale During the Second Anglo-Boer War, two key watchwords associated with serving nurses were ‘duty’ and ‘respectability’.2 At the commencement of war, women from across the Empire, including trained nurses, saw the opportunity to travel to South Africa to experience war and work alongside men as their equals, caught up in a patriotic fervour to defend and expand the Queen’s lands. The war, which resulted from years of ambitious encounters over gold deposits, Afrikaner

in Colonial caring
Abstract only
Carol Acton and Jane Potter

in decades of conflict began as the nineteenth century drew to a close. The ‘last of the 20 Introduction gentlemen’s wars’ and the first modern war was the South African War in 1899–1902. The memoirs and letters of its medical personnel serve as snapshots of reactions that are replicated and transformed by their descendants in the wars that followed. The South African War (also known as the Second Anglo-Boer War) began on 10 October 1899 and ended on 31 May 1902. It was fought between the British Empire, the eventual victor, and the Afrikaans-speaking Dutch

in Working in a world of hurt
Michael Robinson

Introduction There was negligible medical provision for mental and nervous casualties before the First World War. The 955-bed Royal Victoria Military Hospital at Netley provided just 125 beds for such cases within its ‘D Block.’ The Lunacy Act of 1890 enabled discharge from the army, certification and a transferral to an asylum. 1 During the Second Anglo-Boer War, 1899–1902, severely mentally ill troops in both South Ireland and Ulster were discharged from the army and

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39
Christine E. Hallett

war experiences. British nurse writer Kate Luard, a veteran of the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902) began the First World War as a sister with the QAIMNS Reserve and rose to the position of Head Sister to one of the most significant British advanced casualty clearing stations. American Alice Fitzgerald, a prominent member of the nursing profession in the USA, joined the QAIMNS Reserve as a sister in 1916, but left to take up a senior role with the American Red Cross following the USA’s entry into the war. The quintessential British nurse: Kate Luard Katherine

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
The clinical challenges of nursing typhoid patients during the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902)
Charlotte Dale

3 Traversing the veldt with ‘Tommy Atkins’: The clinical challenges of nursing typhoid patients during the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902) Charlotte Dale The decades following the Crimean War witnessed a burgeoning of personal narratives relating accounts of nurses who ministered to combatants in the Franco-Prussian and Anglo-Zulu wars.1 From these, the general public could vicariously experience the working lives of those who travelled far and wide to care for the common working-class soldier, immortalised by Rudyard Kipling in the early 1890s as ‘Tommy

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
Christine E. Hallett

new phenomenon:  the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–5) had featured the use of machine guns and the deployment of heavy artillery. What was new, and (for most) unexpected, was the extent of the carnage. The unsuccessful assaults that characterised the first three-and-a-half years of the First World War led to massive numbers of casualties, sometimes numbering tens of thousands in one day. Typically, the wounded would arrive at field hospitals as ‘rushes’  – more than could be coped with by even the best-staffed hospital with the

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Jane Brooks

training since the developments of schools of nursing in the nineteenth century. Furthermore, nurses saw this work as involving skilled decision making, rather than being a simple domestic task.78 In the absence of drug therapies, it was often the only method of supporting recovery.79 As Charlotte Dale argues, during the Second Anglo-­Boer War (1899–1902) the provision of ‘food, fluids and palliatives’80 was the only treatment regimen for typhoid.81 Although by the Second World War, TAB (typhoid-­paratyphoid A and B) vaccination against typhoid was given to all those on

in Negotiating nursing
Abstract only
The practice of nursing and the exigencies of war
Jane Brooks and Christine E. Hallett

Dale, ‘Traversing the veldt with “Tommy Atkins”: the clinical challenges of nursing typhoid patients during the Second Anglo-Boer War, 1899–1902’, and Kirsty Harris, ‘Health, healing and harmony: invalid cookery and feeding by Australian nurses in the Middle East in the First World War’, in this volume. 32 See Christine Hallett, ‘“This fiendish mode of warfare”: Nursing the victims of gas poisoning in the First World War’, and David Justham, ‘“Those maggots – they did a wonderful job”: The nurses’ role in wound management in civilian hospitals during the Second

in One hundred years of wartime nursing practices, 1854–1953
Open Access (free)
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing
Helen Sweet and Sue Hawkins

disease outbreak, as a prism through which to examine historical questions, invisible or overlooked processes can be revealed. Dale also uses a crisis, in her case the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902), to question the motivation, control and organisation of military nursing at the end of the nineteenth century. Her study reveals a crisis within military nursing, performed at the time by a mix of trained and lay nurses, as the army struggled to meet the demand for professional nursing in the first major conflict to involve nurses in large numbers since the Crimea. The

in Colonial caring