Dinah, according to the account in Genesis 34,
‘went out to visit the women of the land’ and was raped
by Sechem. Sexualviolence, or the threat of violence, was thus
justified as ‘punishment’ for nuns’ (and other
women’s) disobedience in going abroad of their own volition.
Cf. also ‘Husband and wife’ [16
marriages were not necessarily devoid of affection, even love, that fear
of violence and of sexualviolence was a commonplace, or that most women
chose to find strategies to survive within the contemporary social order
rather than to challenge it.
E.g. J. M. Bennett, Women in the Medieval English Countryside:
Gender and Household in