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John Holt & Co. (Liverpool) Ltd as a contemporary free-standing company, 1945–2006
Stephanie Decker

Murden as the height of Liverpool’s postwar golden age, with unemployment at an all-time low around the middle of the decade and the port enjoying record figures for cargo throughput in 1965. 59 While business in Liverpool continued to perform well, it was clear that its economic prospects were poor – a skills shortage coupled with long-term unemployment added to the structural problems of a port which contended

in The empire in one city?
Surviving change c.1970-90
Duncan Mitchell

development of asylum nursing owed much to medical superintendents. Reforming medical superintendents, at different times, identified skill shortages among the asylum workforce and then encouraged training as a way of disciplining and controlling their staff.14 The medical superintendents used their own professional organisation, the Royal Medico-Psychological Association (RMPA), to oversee and accredit training schemes for nurses in both mental and mental deficiency asylums. Training consisted of medical lectures and practice in the areas in which the nurse was going to

in Mental health nursing
Philip Ollerenshaw

business history of the war ‘remains under a shroud’,144 evidence on different firms can exemplify the problems in expanding output. What this shows is that even large firms on direct contracts faced very substantial obstacles to expanding production and that the process was never smooth. Shortage of raw materials, labour immobility, skill shortages, trade disputes, production bottlenecks, managerial shortcomings, dispersal of production, transport disruption, endless changes to specifications and erratic ordering by government all contributed to this. Similarly, once

in Northern Ireland in the Second World War
Reserved men at work
Juliette Pattinson, Arthur McIvor and Linsey Robb

production methods was inherently emasculating because it threatened skilled labour: ‘their work became unmanly’.124 Such methods spread more slowly in Britain before the war, largely being confined to cars, electrical consumer goods (such as hoovers and radios), artificial fibres, plastics and chemical manufacture, as there was less of a skill shortage than in the States. In Britain, as noted, there was much upgrading and upskilling that went hand-​in-​hand with job fragmentation during wartime. While deskilling in wartime was evident in munitions, aircraft manufacture

in Men in reserve