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Food and wine as cultural signifiers
Brian Murphy

of the Tourism Sector at the end of 1998 recorded a 16 per cent increase in the number of restaurants in Ireland in the space of just two years with a commensurate employee shortfall estimated at 5,632 (CHL Consulting 2000). ‘This acute skills shortage is put down variously to anti-­social hours, low wages and burn out – all of which, in turn, contribute to the increasingly prevalent perception of the industry as a short term, transitory career option’ (O’Neill 1998). One must qualify this with the fact that there was an abundance of available employment in

in From prosperity to austerity
Philip J. O’Connell

regulate access to the labour market as well as the bundle of rights that can be exercised by different groups. One example of such regulation is that all nationals of the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes all EU nationals, may migrate to Ireland and take up employment without restriction. Non-EEA nationals are subject to managed migration policy that is designed to meet labour needs from within the EU and to rely upon the Employment Permit system to meet identified skills shortages, most in highly skilled occupations. The Employment Permit system has been

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands