Search results

Author: Caitriona Clear

Men and women who were born, grew up and died in Ireland between 1850 and 1922 made decisions—to train, to emigrate, to stay at home, to marry, to stay single, to stay at school—based on the knowledge and resources they had at the time. This, a comprehensive social history of Ireland for the years 1850–1922, explores that knowledge and discusses those resources, for men and women at all social levels on the island as a whole. Original research, particularly on extreme poverty and public health, is supplemented by neglected published sources, including local history journals, popular autobiography and newspapers. Folklore and Irish language sources are used extensively. The book reproduces the voices of the people and the stories of individuals whenever it can, and questions much of the accepted wisdom of Irish historiography over the previous five decades.

Abstract only
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 1111 2 3 4 15 6 7 8 9 10 1 112 1113 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40111 13/6/07 11:07 Page 159 Conclusion When William Bulfin travelled in Tipperary in the early twentieth century, he was struck by the importance of Charles Kickham’s Knocknagow in the lives of the farmers and labourers: His works are as familiar to them as the fields amidst which they were reared. They are always quoting him . . . from its pages they take standards of conduct and criterions [sic] of life. You will hear them give the

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Abstract only
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 1111 2 3 4 15 6 7 8 9 10 1 112 1113 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40111 13/6/07 11:07 Page 1 Introduction Good social history sees people’s lives ‘from the inside out’, in Henry Glassie’s words,1 evaluating their working lives and social and personal relationships from their standpoint. People do not go about in a permanent state of consciousness of the wider historical trends in which they are playing a part. As well-informed a man as Dr Charles Cameron, leading public health exponent, could scoff, in

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Abstract only
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 13/6/07 11:07 Page 74 5 Marriage Téir abhaile ‘s fan sabhaile mar tá do mhargadh déanta . . . Tá do mhargadh – níl mo mhargadh – tá do mhargadh déanta . . . (Go home and stay at home because your match is made . . . Your match is made – my match is not made – your match is made . . .) (Téir Abhaile, traditional, Donegal) Introduction We are certain of three things about marriage and family in Ireland in the years 1850–1922. The first is that Irish people in general married at a lower rate than the European norm; the second is

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Abstract only
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 13/6/07 11:07 Page 42 3 Education Introduction The French word éducation refers to all aspects of a person’s upbringing, including the formal acquisition of knowledge. The world of schooling in the nineteenth century cannot be understood without appreciating that going to school made up only part of children’ s ‘education’, and whether this was a small or a large part (or no part at all) depended largely on family priorities. Almost all children (except those in rich families) were trained to help around the house, business

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Abstract only
Vagrants and prostitutes
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 1111 2 3 4 15 6 7 8 9 10 1 112 1113 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40111 13/6/07 11:07 Page 127 8 Extreme poverty: vagrants and prostitutes Vagrants and prostitutes were among those who would have been described as ‘poor’ by everyone, including labourers and casual workers. As targets of repression and recipients of relief, they were in regular contact with government and voluntary agencies of the time. Vagrancy or wandering homelessness in Ireland and in Britain was seen as such an ongoing social

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Abstract only
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 13/6/07 11:07 Page 4 1 Agriculture As far as major trends and changes in Irish agriculture after 1850 are concerned, the bog (so to speak) has been so skilfully, ably and comprehensively stripped that it would be an insult to the hardworking historians who performed this back-breaking task to clamp their sods of evidence in different patterns to make them look somehow new. What follows is a brief summary of their findings, but the bulk of the chapter is a discussion of change and continuity in everyday farm-work in Ireland

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Abstract only
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 13/6/07 11:07 Page 108 7 Institutions Nineteenth-century institutions lasted a long time in Ireland. Reformatories and industrial schools still operated in the 1970s. Psychiatric hospitals began to experiment with ‘care in the community’ in the 1960s and 1970s, but many of the features of the old lunatic asylum remained until much later. Magdalen asylums lasted until the 1980s. The hated workhouses were more or less abolished after independence, though the more benign county homes which replaced them continued to house some

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 13/6/07 11:07 Page 24 2 Non-agricultural work Introduction There was some development of non-agricultural employment in Ireland between 1851 and 1922, but this does not mean that there was work for everyone. Emigration masked the true extent of unemployment, millions of people moving from the country and sending home money to those who could not survive on the wages paid for the work they described themselves as doing to the census. Any discussion of ‘gains’ must bear this firmly in mind. There was, however, an increase in the

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922
Caitriona Clear

4883 Social Change PT bjl.qxd 1111 2 3 4 15 6 7 8 9 10 1 112 1113 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 40111 13/6/07 11:07 Page 57 4 Emigration and migration They went across the fields at six o’clock this morning, they are in America long ago. (Tipperary boy, 1890s, asked about his sisters1) How many and where? The alarming figures have been so often repeated that we are in danger of taking them for granted: in 1890 there were 3 million Irish people living outside of Ireland and 40 per cent of all Irish-bybirth people in the world were

in Social change and everyday life in Ireland 1850–1922