porters were to wait their turn to be hired by someone who was purchasing wine and needed to have it carried home or, in the case of a tavern keeper, to the cellar of the tavern. Their charge for this service increased with the distance they had to go.
This specialised métier of the wine porters was one of the countless effects of the series of economic and socialchanges experienced in Western Europe between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries, and called by some historians the ‘Commercial Revolution’. The conscious borrowing from the
texts, and patterns of historical change; to inform the way we
track socialchange, the way our feelings of and knowledge about the
past can change, and the relation between politics, society and the
We also advance the claim that medievalism – conceived most
broadly as an engaged dialectic between the medieval past and the
post-medieval future – is and/or could be seen as an exemplary
, ‘Enemies of the count and of the city’; and further discussion in chapter 6 .
71 Leader, History of the University of Cambridge, I , pp. 38–9; Warneke, Images of the Educational Traveller , pp. 27–8.
72 See also the wider discussion of the decline of opportunity in the colonies by Bennett, ‘Plantagenet Empire as “enterprise zone”’.
73 Freeman, ‘“And he abjured the realm of England”’, pp. 301–3.
74 Clay, Economic Expansion and SocialChange , pp. 12–15; Bolton, ‘“The world upside down”’, pp. 28–40.
75 Alien Communities , pp. 8–9.
76 Keene, ‘Metropolitan
women are looked upon as being responsible for maintaining and
transmitting the vital qualities within the family. Given this
combination of considerations and circumstances, the leadership, which
was entirely male, could not ignore them; consequently, women
continually improved their lot. Thus, the change in the status of women
may be viewed as the result of an overall socialchange in a Jewish
John of Salisbury (c. 1120–80) is a key figure of the twelfth-century renaissance. A student at the cosmopolitan schools of medieval Paris, an associate of Thomas Becket and an acute commentator on society and rulership, his works and letters give unique insights into the political culture of this period. This volume reassesses the influence of classical sources on John’s political writings, investigating how he accessed and used the ideas of his ancient predecessors. By looking at his quotations from and allusions to classical works, O’Daly shows that John not only borrowed the vocabulary of his classical forbears, but explicitly aligned himself with their philosophical positions. She illustrates John’s profound debt to Roman Stoicism, derived from the writings of Seneca and Cicero, and shows how he made Stoic theories on duties, virtuous rulership and moderation relevant to the medieval context. She also examines how John’s classical learning was filtered through patristic sources, arguing that this led to a unique synthesis between his political and theological views. The book places famous elements of John’s political theory - such as his model of the body-politic, his views on tyranny - in the context of the intellectual foment of the classical revival and the dramatic social changes afoot in Europe in the twelfth century. In so doing, it offers students and researchers of this period a novel investigation of how Stoicism comprises a ‘third way’ for medieval political philosophy, interacting with – and at times dominating – neo-Platonism and proto-Aristotelianism.
in the later tenth century, and were promoted by local clergy and lay powers, they increasingly were directed in the eleventh century by a newly-ascendant Church hierarchy, and especially a reinvigorated Roman papacy, that sought to promote reform both in an attempt to return to the apostolic ideals of the early Church and as a reaction to far-ranging political, economic and socialchanges. Yet in the process of promoting reform, the Church would ultimately begin both to delineate and impress a unique identity for the Latin West, that of the societas christiana
century – both of which left indelible marks on the society in which they developed – we need to be sensitive to how socialchanges challenged, intersected with and were harnessed by the reformers in the pursuit of their objectives. As will be seen in Chapter 3 on the ‘peace of God’, in some ways itself another instance where social and religious elements have been addressed in isolation from one another, the historiographical frameworks of mutation , ‘revolution’ and especially reform are not only useful but essential for an understanding of social and religious
at the time as a quality ,
and accordingly was assessed in qualitative terms’. 14 Chaucer’s verses
reflect his sensitivity to this new development in late medieval
mentality and the socialchanges taking place in late fourteenth-century
England. Whether they had access to Chaucer’s work or not (or
indeed to any other similar writings in the period), most members of the
gentry would have sympathised
secular hierarchies with regard to the ‘peace’, one that was perhaps deliberately cultivated. Therefore, far from any simple or single narrative of the powerless ( pauperes ) against the powerful ( potentes ), most historians now tend to emphasize that the ‘peace’ was one of several quasi-institutional means used by ecclesiastical and secular hierarchies alike to promote, to contain, and especially perhaps to channel both the ‘anarchy’ and socialchange that had arisen in the wake of the political fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire.
This intersection of interest
English Literature: Intersections (Bloomington:
Indiana University Press, 1994), pp. 76–94; and ‘Linear or Nuclear?
Family Patterns in Some Middle English Popular Romances’,
Publications of the Medieval Association of the Midwest, 12 (2005), 26–51.
13 Among several important studies, see Felicity Riddy, ‘Mother Knows
Best: Reading SocialChange in a Courtesy Text’, Speculum, 71 (1996),
66–86; ‘Middle English Romance: Family, Marriage, Intimacy’, in
Roberta L. Krueger (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Medieval
Romance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000