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Lester K. Little

porters were to wait their turn to be hired by someone who was purchasing wine and needed to have it carried home or, in the case of a tavern keeper, to the cellar of the tavern. Their charge for this service increased with the distance they had to go. This specialised métier of the wine porters was one of the countless effects of the series of economic and social changes experienced in Western Europe between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries, and called by some historians the ‘Commercial Revolution’. The conscious borrowing from the

in Indispensable immigrants
Thomas A. Prendergast and Stephanie Trigg

texts, and patterns of historical change; to inform the way we track social change, the way our feelings of and knowledge about the past can change, and the relation between politics, society and the imagination. We also advance the claim that medievalism – conceived most broadly as an engaged dialectic between the medieval past and the post-medieval future – is and/or could be seen as an exemplary

in Affective medievalism
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

, ‘Enemies of the count and of the city’; and further discussion in chapter 6 . 71 Leader, History of the University of Cambridge, I , pp. 38–9; Warneke, Images of the Educational Traveller , pp. 27–8. 72 See also the wider discussion of the decline of opportunity in the colonies by Bennett, ‘Plantagenet Empire as “enterprise zone”’. 73 Freeman, ‘“And he abjured the realm of England”’, pp. 301–3. 74 Clay, Economic Expansion and Social Change , pp. 12–15; Bolton, ‘“The world upside down”’, pp. 28–40. 75 Alien Communities , pp. 8–9. 76 Keene, ‘Metropolitan

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
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Simha Goldin

addition, women are looked upon as being responsible for maintaining and transmitting the vital qualities within the family. Given this combination of considerations and circumstances, the leadership, which was entirely male, could not ignore them; consequently, women continually improved their lot. Thus, the change in the status of women may be viewed as the result of an overall social change in a Jewish

in Jewish women in europe in the middle ages
Author: Irene O'Daly

John of Salisbury (c. 1120–80) is a key figure of the twelfth-century renaissance. A student at the cosmopolitan schools of medieval Paris, an associate of Thomas Becket and an acute commentator on society and rulership, his works and letters give unique insights into the political culture of this period. This volume reassesses the influence of classical sources on John’s political writings, investigating how he accessed and used the ideas of his ancient predecessors.

By looking at his quotations from and allusions to classical works, O’Daly shows that John not only borrowed the vocabulary of his classical forbears, but explicitly aligned himself with their philosophical positions. She illustrates John’s profound debt to Roman Stoicism, derived from the writings of Seneca and Cicero, and shows how he made Stoic theories on duties, virtuous rulership and moderation relevant to the medieval context. She also examines how John’s classical learning was filtered through patristic sources, arguing that this led to a unique synthesis between his political and theological views.

The book places famous elements of John’s political theory - such as his model of the body-politic, his views on tyranny - in the context of the intellectual foment of the classical revival and the dramatic social changes afoot in Europe in the twelfth century. In so doing, it offers students and researchers of this period a novel investigation of how Stoicism comprises a ‘third way’ for medieval political philosophy, interacting with – and at times dominating – neo-Platonism and proto-Aristotelianism.

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Kathleen G. Cushing

in the later tenth century, and were promoted by local clergy and lay powers, they increasingly were directed in the eleventh century by a newly-ascendant Church hierarchy, and especially a reinvigorated Roman papacy, that sought to promote reform both in an attempt to return to the apostolic ideals of the early Church and as a reaction to far-ranging political, economic and social changes. Yet in the process of promoting reform, the Church would ultimately begin both to delineate and impress a unique identity for the Latin West, that of the societas christiana

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
Kathleen G. Cushing

century – both of which left indelible marks on the society in which they developed – we need to be sensitive to how social changes challenged, intersected with and were harnessed by the reformers in the pursuit of their objectives. As will be seen in Chapter 3 on the ‘peace of God’, in some ways itself another instance where social and religious elements have been addressed in isolation from one another, the historiographical frameworks of mutation , ‘revolution’ and especially reform are not only useful but essential for an understanding of social and religious

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
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Raluca Radulescu

at the time as a quality , and accordingly was assessed in qualitative terms’. 14 Chaucer’s verses reflect his sensitivity to this new development in late medieval mentality and the social changes taking place in late fourteenth-century England. Whether they had access to Chaucer’s work or not (or indeed to any other similar writings in the period), most members of the gentry would have sympathised

in Gentry culture in late-medieval England
Kathleen G. Cushing

secular hierarchies with regard to the ‘peace’, one that was perhaps deliberately cultivated. Therefore, far from any simple or single narrative of the powerless ( pauperes ) against the powerful ( potentes ), most historians now tend to emphasize that the ‘peace’ was one of several quasi-institutional means used by ecclesiastical and secular hierarchies alike to promote, to contain, and especially perhaps to channel both the ‘anarchy’ and social change that had arisen in the wake of the political fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire. This intersection of interest

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
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The home life of information
Glenn Burger and Rory Critten

English Literature: Intersections (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994), pp. 76–​94; and ‘Linear or Nuclear? Family Patterns in Some Middle English Popular Romances’, Publications of the Medieval Association of the Midwest, 12 (2005), 26–​51. 13 Among several important studies, see Felicity Riddy, ‘Mother Knows Best: Reading Social Change in a Courtesy Text’, Speculum, 71 (1996), 66–​86; ‘Middle English Romance:  Family, Marriage, Intimacy’, in Roberta L. Krueger (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Romance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000

in Household knowledges in late-medieval England and France