Identity is contingent and dynamic, constituting and reconstituting subjects with political effects. This book explores the implications of Protestant and 'British' incursions for the development of Irish Catholic identity as preserved in Irish language texts from the early modern period until the end of Stuart pretensions. Questions of citizenship, belonging, migration, conflict, security, peace and subjectivity are examined through social construction, post-colonialism, and gendered lenses from an interdisciplinary perspective. The book explains the issue of cultural Catholicism in the later middle ages, by way of devotional cults and practices. It examines Catholic unionism vis-a-vis Victorian politics, military and imperial service, the crown, and the position of the Catholic Church with relation to the structures of the state in Ireland. In particular the North American experience and especially the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation of Irish Catholic nationalist identity, is explored. Children studied in English Catholic public schools like Stonyhurst and Downside where the establishment Irish Catholics and rising mercantile classes sought to have the characteristics of the Catholic gentleman instilled in their progeny. The book sets out to detect the voices of those Catholic women who managed to make themselves heard by a wider audience than family and friends in Ireland in the years between the Act of Union of 1800 and independence/partition. It considers what devotional interests both Gaelic Irish and Anglo-Norman actually shared in common as part of a wider late medieval Catholic culture.
and developmental patterns will have been in existence in the Middle Ages. The genetic and physiological causes of ID will have changed little, historically, thus ID cannot simply be dismissed as a purely ‘modern disorder’.
Socialconstructionism and ID
At this point it is apposite to briefly introduce a philosophical critique, primarily expounded by Hacking, of the preponderance in Western academia to claim that nigh on everything, whether people, objects or ideas, is socially constructed. The question of social
My aim in this chapter is to explore some issues
concerning social memory, commemoration, and the socialconstruction of contemporary
identities in the urban arena. By examining the production and iconography of two
exhibitionary events in twentieth-century Seville, I want to illuminate the complex
connections between debates about the location of Spanish culture, definitions of
‘Spanishness’ and the recasting of the legacy of Spanish imperialism. As a key
site within Spanish national mythology and imperial
The cultural landscape of cricket
alone signifies the game’s centrality in both imperial and
post-colonial socialconstruction. While there has been much discussion
about who was included in playing the game, for example, it is as
important to note those excluded – for a long time that involved
such diverse groups as women in most areas, working-class blacks in the
, riding and games’ playing were sanctioned
and encouraged by their spouses. Anglo-Indian women’s
involvement in sports in the Indian empire – in particular,
their aptitude for hunting and shooting – reveals the
interdependence and interaction of the socialconstruction of gender
and the dictates of British imperialism.
However, Anglo-Indian women’s use of firearms
This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.
Farmborough, Nurse at the
Russian Front: A Diary 1914–18 (London: Book Club Associates, 1974). On
the ‘romance pattern’, see: Paul Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000 ): 130–1.
6 Janet S. K. Watson, ‘Wars in the Wards: The SocialConstruction of Medical
Work in First World War Britain’, Journal of British Studies, 41(2002): 484–510.
See also: Janet S. K. Watson, Fighting Different Wars: Experience, Memory and
the First World War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004): passim.
‘work out alternative meanings for the structure of their lives’.10
In doing so it is suggested that WI members embraced their domestic roles
but at the same time contested ‘socialconstructions of gender’.
Lorna Gibson argues that to include the WI in the history of the
women’s movement the term ‘feminism’ needs redefining. Feminism,
Gibson suggests, ‘is assumed to originate from women’s dissatisfaction
with domesticity’.12 Moreover the concept of feminism also assumes some
recognition of the imbalance of power between men and women and
the desire to achieve
Medicine, now virtually a discipline
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Physick and the family
of its own, has provided much of the impetus for this change. Old Whig notions
of ‘Great Men’ doctors, miraculous discoveries and linear teleological progress
have been largely abandoned in favour of more nuanced explorations of the
many side alleys and dead ends of medical history; of the continuities as well
as the changes.4 The influence of social-constructionism, to give one example,
can be seen in the increasingly firm location of medical history
and opportunities for participative citizenship. The
Irish experience indicates that, even when prisoners are enfranchised,
obstacles remain, both real and symbolic, to prisoners embracing citizenship fully.
The book begins with an analysis of the theoretical and legal arguments for and against the enfranchisement of citizens behind bars. The
standpoints taken by different sides in the debate usually indicate their
perspectives on democracy, punishment and the socialconstruction of
criminality. Chapter 1 outlines the historical development of ‘civic death’