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Kosovo prior to 1999
Naomi Head

conflict and instead focuses on the political and social construction of ethnic tension. The second section identifies a number of key processes and actors which contributed to the marginalisation of Kosovo between 1989–98 and thus to the development of violent conflict. 4 These processes include: the European Community Conference on Yugoslavia in 1991 ; the Badinter Arbitration Commission set

in Justifying violence
Alexander Spencer

narrative elements of setting, characterization and emplotment into a constructivist theoretical framework, which stresses the social construction of reality, identity and the co-constitution of agent and structure. The third part reflects on questions of ‘causality’ and on reasons for the success and failure of particular narratives, while part four outlines what one may consider particular elements of romantic narratives. The conclusion summarizes the main findings and illustrates how this will be applied to the empirical narratives in the following chapters. The

in Romantic narratives in international politics
A critical analysis of the work of John Burton
Author: Tarja Väyrynen

This book is a critical study of John Burton's work, which outlines an alternative framework for the study of international conflict, and re-examines conflict resolution. It argues that culture has a constitutive role in international conflict and conflict resolution. The book provides an overview of the mediation literature in order to locate problem-solving workshop conflict resolution within the context of peaceful third-party involvement. It analyses human needs thinking and examines the similarities between it and Burton's thinking. The book also examines the logic of Burton's argument by means of metaphor analysis, by analysing the metaphors which can be found in his human needs theory. It studies further Burton's views of action and rationality, and moves into phenomenology and social constructionism. The book takes as its starting-point a totalist theory of international conflict resolution, namely Burton's sociobiologically-oriented conflict theory, and demonstrates the logic of argument and the denial of culture underlying his problem-solving theory. It explains the dimensions of the social world in order to lay a foundation for the study of conflict and conflict resolution from the social constructionist perspective. The book presents a phenomenological understanding of conflict and problem-solving conflict resolution. Finally, it argues that problem-solving workshop conflict resolution can be best understood as an attempt to find a shared reality between the parties in conflict.

Michelle Bentley

This chapter analyses the chemical weapons taboo – the idea that chemical weapons are so abhorrent that they cannot be tolerated. In particular it engages with the work of Richard Price. It reinterprets the taboo from the perspective of Quentin Skinner and his concept of the ‘innovating ideologist.’ Instead of viewing the taboo as a social construction, this analysis argues that actors can exert significant agency over the taboo and the way in which it is employed in political discourse.

in Syria and the chemical weapons taboo
Tarja Väyrynen

Berger and Thomas Luckmann’s The Social Construction of Reality, 18 on the other hand, has a Schutzian origin in terms of its focus on the distribution of knowledge in the life-world. The book studies what people ‘know as reality’ in their everyday, non- or pre-theoretical, lives. For Berger and Luckmann the task of the sociology of knowledge is to concern itself with the social construction

in Culture and international conflict resolution
A Singaporean tale of two ‘essentialisms’
See Seng Tan

contingent, social construction. State discourses very often possess a competitive edge in reality construction, but never a monopoly. A ‘genealogy of regionalism’ in which the construction of an imagined community beyond the nation-state is seen to have been the sole prerogative of state elites who enjoy a complete monopoly over the

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific
Abstract only
The problématique of culture in international conflict analysis
Tarja Väyrynen

workings of power in mediation and makes the political nature of the mediation process invisible. 14 In sum, the studies which emphasise the role of language, culture and identity in international conflict resolution demonstrate that conflicts do not arise only from differences of interest. Rather, conflicts are over meaning, over the social construction and management of meaning. Conflict resolution engages

in Culture and international conflict resolution
Douglas Blum

: Beyond Parochialism in International Relations History’, in Yosef Lapid and Friedrich Kratochwil (eds), The Return of Culture and Identity in IR Theory (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1996), pp. 65–84; also Ted Hopf, Social Construction of International Politics: Identities and Foreign Policies, Moscow, 1955 and 1999 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2002 ). 8 As David Campbell observes, ‘the state more often than not precedes the nation: . . . nationalism is a construct of the state in pursuit of its legitimacy’. David Campbell, Writing Security: United States

in Limiting institutions?
Lesley Pruitt and Erica Rose Jeffrey

International Relations (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015). 6 S. Marston, ‘The social construction of scale’, Progress in Human Geography , 24 (2000), p. 232. 7 Ibid ., p. 220; A. Björkdahl and S. Buckley-Zistel, Spatializing Peace and Conflict: Mapping the Production of

in Dancing through the dissonance
Abstract only
Ahmad H. Sa’di

identity of the Palestinians. The major part of this research explored the selfcategorization of Palestinian citizens. Typically, interviewees were asked to choose among a list of labels the most appropriate social construction that describes their identity. The lists usually included images: Arab, Israeli, religious affiliations, Israeli Arab and Palestinian. The findings were interpreted as indicating Israelization versus Palestinization or radicalization versus moderation. On the basis of the state policy plan of dividing the Palestinians into ethnic groups with

in Thorough surveillance