Identity is contingent and dynamic, constituting and reconstituting subjects with political effects. This book explores the implications of Protestant and 'British' incursions for the development of Irish Catholic identity as preserved in Irish language texts from the early modern period until the end of Stuart pretensions. Questions of citizenship, belonging, migration, conflict, security, peace and subjectivity are examined through social construction, post-colonialism, and gendered lenses from an interdisciplinary perspective. The book explains the issue of cultural Catholicism in the later middle ages, by way of devotional cults and practices. It examines Catholic unionism vis-a-vis Victorian politics, military and imperial service, the crown, and the position of the Catholic Church with relation to the structures of the state in Ireland. In particular the North American experience and especially the importance of the USA for consolidating a particular interpretation of Irish Catholic nationalist identity, is explored. Children studied in English Catholic public schools like Stonyhurst and Downside where the establishment Irish Catholics and rising mercantile classes sought to have the characteristics of the Catholic gentleman instilled in their progeny. The book sets out to detect the voices of those Catholic women who managed to make themselves heard by a wider audience than family and friends in Ireland in the years between the Act of Union of 1800 and independence/partition. It considers what devotional interests both Gaelic Irish and Anglo-Norman actually shared in common as part of a wider late medieval Catholic culture.
, however we
define globalization, one can hardly remain oblivious to events around
the globe. Identities are responses of individuals and groups to these
changes. This means that the individual/group has the agency; they are
not passive recipients of all that is happening around them. Having said
that, I would like to go back to the point of socialconstruction. The
act of construction is carried out through various means, and through
formal and informal institutions such as family, school, associations, etc.
The identity, however defined, is bound to be contested within
‘pre-marital sexuality’ does not work chronologically through childhood,
youth and then courtship, but is organised around the key themes and
questions that emerged from the interviewees’ memories of the period.
One section of this chapter deals with ‘infantilism’ as a socialconstruction, exploring the way popular psychoanalytical understandings
of religiosity and its relationship with childhood have affected
Cornwall and Nancy Lindisfarne have written that the portrayal of the socialconstruction of masculinity and femininity as strictly relational rests on
‘a number of questionable assumptions, among them the idea that these
qualities cannot be ascribed to a single individual at the same time’.
They argue that although ‘an important aspect of many hegemonic
discourses is their focus on an absolute, naturalised and, typically
black magic and bogeymen in Northern Ireland, 1973–74
For example, SN 28 Oct. 1973; Dungannon News and
Tyrone Courier 31 Oct. 1973; Northern Standard (Monaghan) 2
Nov. 1973; Ulster Loyalist 15 Nov. 1973.
S. Cohen, Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The
Creation of the Mods and Rockers (London, 1972); E. Goode and N.
Ben-Yahuda, Moral Panics: The SocialConstruction of Deviance
my fieldwork I would shift contexts abruptly, often several times a day, between Islamic healing rituals and lectures on God's demands on our daily conduct in the mosques, discussions about the socialconstruction of truth among colleagues in the Department of Anthropology at Aarhus University, and heart-breaking attempts by nurses in the psychiatric institutions to convince their patients to take their antipsychotic drugs. As the months and years proceeded it became increasingly difficult not to bring back experiences from the field to my private life, my dreams
186 OA 9/5/19, ‘The Christian Witness in the Present Crisis’, 6 October 1943, p. 11.
187 Collini, Absent Minds , pp. 319–20. Eliot, Idea of a Christian Society , pp. 85–7; Moot Papers , p. 15.
188 Mary Jo Nye, Michael Polanyi and His Generation: Origins of the SocialConstruction of Science (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011), p. 185.
189 Kojecky, T. S. Eliot’s Social Criticism , p. 155.
190 Mullins and Jacobs, ‘Idea of the Clerisy’, p. 150. This was not an unusual stance: Ritschel, Politics of Planning , p. 6. See Phil Mullins and Struan
(eds), The SocialConstruction of Social Policy: Methodologies, Racism, Citizenship
and the Environment (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1996), p. 162.
66 Liberal Democrats, ‘Political Speech and Race Relations in a Liberal Democracy’,
67 Ibid., pp. 40–2.
68 New Statesman and Society, 18 February 1994, p. 20.
69 Ibid., p. 19; Liberal Democrats, ‘Political Speech and Race Relations in a Liberal
Democracy’, pp. 54–5.
70 Interviewed 17 January 2001.
71 The Social Democratic Party (SDP) was formed in 1981 by Labour Party members
who split from their party to take a
Jews in Portsmouth during the long eighteenth century
the work of social geography, it has been suggested that ‘place is a negotiated reality, a socialconstruction by a purposeful set of actors. But the relationship is mutual, for places in turn develop and reinforce the identity of the social group that claims them’. 10 Just as the memory of early Winchester as capital of Wessex was utilised in the (racial) construction of Englishness and the British Empire, so the later history of Portsmouth, as home of the navy, was employed for a wider purpose. As Ken Lunn and Ann Day have argued, although neglected in academic
70 Victoria Ward and Katherine Donnelly, ‘Changes in Society Mean School Bus
Routes “Are Way Out of Date” ’, Irish Independent (26 August 2004).
71 For a comparative analysis, see Marie McAndrew, ‘Should National Minorities/
Majorities Share Common Institutions or Control Their Own Schools? A Comparison
of Policies and Debates in Quebec, Northern Ireland, and Catalonia’, in Christiane
Harzig and Danielle Juteau (eds), The SocialConstruction of Diversity: Recasting
the Master Narrative of Industrial Nations (New York: Berghahn Books, 2003),