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A genealogical enquiry
Małgorzata Jakimów

traditions, and how this tension, in turn, was translated into citizenship education in post-Maoist China, which promoted the paternalistic, state-obedient ideal of citizenship. The final section discusses how the combined forces of the hierarchical rural–urban imaginary, the hukou system and the prescribed citizenship practices of obedience and passivity have interplayed with local state policies in urban China. I analyse three cities in particular – Shenzhen, Beijing and Hangzhou – as these are the locations of the majority of NGOs in this study, and three key

in China’s citizenship challenge
Małgorzata Jakimów

Therefore, while the NGO clearly supports the state's policies, it says that the policy itself is not implemented sufficiently by the state, but relies on actors like NGOs to put it into action. While the NGO sees the production of the ‘neoliberal citizen-subject’ as a necessary prerequisite for migrants’ integration into the city, it still criticises the lack of state-provided training and assistance for migrant workers to become such citizens. This approach does not easily fit within either the ‘resistance through accommodation’ or the simple succumbing to the state

in China’s citizenship challenge
Crispian Fuller

’ reciprocating significant symbols embedded within nation-state policy discourses, pushed down from central government in terms of the policy priority of having a mayor. A critical aspect of this has been the Labour cabinet justifying the city-region deal and mayor and, in so doing, seeking to construct significant symbols that are able to produce the ‘me’ of local politicians but also ensure that emergent forms of the ‘I’, as the impulsive and emotive aspects of political life, are congruent with the dominant city-region agenda. An aspect of this is to ensure that any

in The power of pragmatism
Abstract only
Citizenship challenge, social inequality and the insecure state
Małgorzata Jakimów

interested in pushing for change in citizenship practices and discourse. Another problematic constraint for NGOs is the relationship with their proclaimed constituency. While there are many instances of empowering acts conducted by NGOs, such as education on rights of citizenship and extra-legal aspects of citizenship, it is clear that this relationship has its limits and problems (for instance, the training in law they provide often lacks empowering qualities). The number of migrant workers that migrant NGOs can reach is limited due to state policies

in China’s citizenship challenge
Abstract only
Creating places of vernacular democracy
Beata J. Gawryszewska
,
Maciej Łepkowski
, and
Anna Wilczyńska

taken over the function of developed urban green areas as an alternative and a complement to them (Łepkowski et al., 2016; Trzaskowska, 2008). In land-​use plans and local development plans, an overwhelming number of these areas are intended for housing development (see Figure  3.1). This hunger for new residential premises does not decrease while there is a growing pressure for sensible State policy and undertaking real actions aimed at the reduction of this uncontrolled development. The Polish government states that in the near future development investments are

in Urban gardening and the struggle for social and spatial justice
Małgorzata Jakimów

citizenship. While the formation of NGOs seems to be a relatively moderate attempt to target injustice suffered by this vast social group in China, it remains rare and fraught with difficulty. But why is organising a migrant NGO so difficult? Is it because of the state's policies, or rather, is it the result of the lack of funding, lack of relationship with appropriate authorities ( guanxi ) or lack of social capital (Franceschini, 2014 )? There are certainly all these issues to consider, but they do largely boil down to the underlying problem of uneven

in China’s citizenship challenge
Abstract only
A critique of (urban) political ecology
Erik Swyngedouw

, discursively almost completely replaced signifiers like ‘capitalism’ or ‘class struggle’ (and even more so ‘socialism’ or ‘communism’) as if a particular state policy and near-hegemonic elite fantasy and discourse stands in for the totality of the historically and geographically variegated, dynamic, and contradictory permutations of the political

in Turning up the heat
Thinking through heterogeneity, serendipity, and autonomy in African cities
Mary Lawhon
,
Anesu Makina
, and
Gloria Nsangi Nakyagaba

administrators and their Asian counterparts. Thus, the spatial extent of the network is limited and is primarily accessible to high and middle-income earners who now reside in these places (Appelblad Fredby and Nilsson, 2013 ). State policies generated since independence have emphasised the expansion of the sewer network, yet there have been recent changes that legitimise and seek to

in Turning up the heat
Open Access (free)
Situating peripheries research in South Africa and Ethiopia
Paula Meth
,
Alison Todes
,
Sarah Charlton
,
Tatenda Mukwedeya
,
Jennifer Houghton
,
Tom Goodfellow
,
Metadel Sileshi Belihu
,
Zhengli Huang
,
Divine Mawuli Asafo
,
Sibongile Buthelezi
, and
Fikile Masikane

structures vary dramatically, with evidence of strong party politics in some, alongside problematic clientelistic relationships, power-wielding individuals, effectively functioning local democracies and committee structures, and competing traditional leadership in others. Comparisons also reveal the varied significance of city region, municipal authority and traditional leadership boundaries in shaping investment forms and the financial clout of investments, as well as the relationship between state policy (at different scales) and actual practices of

in African cities and collaborative futures
Louise Amoore

to globalisation (Reich, 1991; Department for International Development, 2000). The overwhelming image is one of a convergence of state policy, firm behaviour, and societal response around a single ‘best’ solution. Much of this analysis subordinates the politics of restructuring to the economic imperative of particular policy responses. Distinctive social institutions, understandings and practices are neglected in the process of identifying converging agendas. Amoore_Global_02_Ch1 20 6/19/02, 12:07 PM Globalisation, restructuring and flexibility 21 Policy

in Globalisation contested