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Contesting veterinary knowledge in a pastoral community
Richard Waller
and
Kathy Homewood

different systems of knowledge, sometimes converging or interlocking but often at odds over fundamental issues. We also draw attention to the fact that strategies based on the different systems of knowledge lead to different biological/ecological outcomes, and we suggest that modern epidemiological events should still be interpreted in the light of conflicts between state policy and pastoralist strategy

in Western medicine as contested knowledge
T. M. Devine

Lowlands. The Act of 1872 and subsequent educational policies and practices may well have accelerated these trends but the general process of linguistic decline was apparent in the Gaidhealtachd long before the educational legislation of the later nineteenth century. From at least the early seventeenth century state policy in the Highlands until after the last Jacobite rebellion was directed to the repression and eradication of ‘the Irische language’. Not only was Gaelic associated with the instability of the region, it was also seen as one of its basic causes. In 1616

in Clanship to crofters’ war
Panikos Panayi

War. We can reach a deeper understanding of our story by placing it into three contexts. First is its importance to the lives of those affected. Second is its significance as state policy. And, third, we need to place the control of German prisoners in Britain within the broader European picture of persecution during the First World War in particular, and to try to understand its meaning within the age of catastrophe recognized by Hobsbawm, but also examine the First World War as a turning point in the history of mass incarceration. During the Great War internment

in Prisoners of Britain
The politics of Empire settlement, 1900–1922
Keith Williams

After the First World War there was a striking reorientation of state policy on emigration from the United Kingdom. A state-assisted emigration scheme for ex-servicemen and ex-servicewomen, operating from 1919 to 1922, was followed by an Empire Settlement Act, passed in 1922, which made significant British state funding available for assisted emigration and overseas land settlement

in Emigrants and empire
The development of Indian identity in 1940s’ Durban
Paivathi Raman

repressive state policies. As offspring of indentured workers from Natal, they were members of the Indian lower-middle class who had managed to get a Western education and had entered the white-collar professions; they were mostly Tamil-speaking Hindus and Christians, and their livelihoods depended to a large extent on the colonial administration. Colonial-born Indians began to cohere self-consciously as a social group in the interwar period when it became more difficult for this Western-educated elite to maintain their standard of

in Rethinking settler colonialism
British settlement in the dominions between the wars

Professor Drummond's two pioneering studies, British Economic Policy and the Empire 1919-1939, 1972, and Imperial Economic Policy 1917-1939, 1974, helped to revive interest in Empire migration and other aspects of inter-war imperial economic history. This book concentrates upon the attempts to promote state-assisted migration in the post-First World War period particularly associated with the Empire Settlement Act of 1922. It examines the background to these new emigration experiments, the development of plans for both individual and family migration, as well as the specific schemes for the settlement of ex-servicemen and of women. Varying degrees of encouragement, acquiescence and resistance with which they were received in the dominions, are discussed. After the First World War there was a striking reorientation of state policy on emigration from the United Kingdom. A state-assisted emigration scheme for ex-servicemen and ex-servicewomen, operating from 1919 to 1922, was followed by an Empire Settlement Act, passed in 1922. This made significant British state funding available for assisted emigration and overseas land settlement in British Empire countries. Foremost amongst the achievements of the high-minded imperial projects was the free-passage scheme for ex-servicemen and women which operated between 1919 and 1922 under the auspices of the Oversea Settlement Committee. Cheap passages were considered as one of the prime factors in stimulating the flow of migration, particularly in the case of single women. The research represented here makes a significant contribution to the social histories of these states as well as of the United Kingdom.

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The drug regulatory regime vs. criminal anarchy
Stephen Snelders

In the twentieth century a global regulatory regime supervised by the League of Nations and later the United Nations came into existence to prohibit and control drug use. This regime was embodied in national legislation such as the Dutch Opium Act, which was introduced in 1919 and underwent various changes in the course of the twentieth century. While increasingly more drugs were regulated, at the same time the Netherlands became a key hub in the international illegal drug trade. Chapter 1 outlines the key perspective and argument of this book’s historical investigation into this development. Drug smuggling was a dialectical response ‘from below’ to state policies ‘from above’. Two elements were crucial for its success. First, the organization of the smugglers in forms of ‘criminal anarchy’: the ‘ways of operation’ (de Certeau) or tactics of the smugglers opposed the drug regulatory regime with self-regulating, fluid, opportunistic, and often temporary structures. Second, the networks of the drug smugglers were social, cultural, and historical, deeply embedded and rooted in Dutch society.

in Drug smuggler nation
Space, power and governance in mid-twentieth century British cities

Reconstructing modernity assesses the character of approaches to rebuilding British cities during the decades after the Second World War. It explores the strategies of spatial governance that sought to restructure society and looks at the cast of characters who shaped these processes. It challenges traditional views of urban modernism as moderate and humanist, shedding new light on the importance of the immediate post-war for the trajectory of urban renewal in the twentieth century. The book shows how local corporations and town planners in Manchester and Hull attempted to create order and functionality through the remaking of their decrepit Victorian cities. It looks at the motivations of national and local governments in the post-war rebuilding process and explores why and how they attempted the schemes they did. What emerges is a picture of local corporations, planners and city engineers as radical reshapers of the urban environment, not through the production of grand examples of architectural modernism, but in mundane attempts to zone cities, produce greener housing estates, control advertising or regulate air quality. Their ambition to control and shape the space of their cities was an attempt to produce urban environments that might be both more orderly and functional, but also held the potential to shape society.

Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria- Hungary
Rebekah Klein-Pejšová

excessive influx could endanger providing for the inhabitants.21 Jewish refugee aid and conflict with Hungarian state policy Rabbi Wéber’s success on behalf of the refugees already provided for by his community in Pőstyén was exceptional. While other provincial Hungarian Jewish communities energetically intervened on behalf of the Galician Jewish refugees sojourning in their towns (namely Pozsony, Stomfa, Győr, Hajdúnanás, Vágujhely, Miskolc and Ónod), their requests to receive the same temporary Austrian aid available as in Budapest was rejected. Rabbi Snyders of Győr

in Europe on the move
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Paul Jackson

. Chapter 3 explained how the extreme right in the last 20 years has been remarkably adept at developing new forms, responding to shifts in society and exploiting the ambiguous prejudices created by wider cultures of liberal racism, such as media discourses and state policies endorsing fears around Muslim communities. Nick Griffin ’s ‘modernisation’ of the British National Party was one good example of an

in Pride in prejudice