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Coreen Anne McGuire

distinct classes is reduced when ‘the group is not so well mobilized; when it articulates demands in relation to a form of social difference that is not already institutionalized in state policies; and when its frames do not resonate with the public of policymakers, perhaps because of the difficulty of advancing a biological difference argument’. 14 If we consider disability, as Elizabeth Barnes does, as primarily a social phenomenon, then we could indeed argue that there are good health-related reasons to consider disability to be a reference class. Against this, we

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
The moron as an enemy force
Gerald V. O’Brien

California operated farms under the names of others, since they were forbidden by law to own their own property.3 In each case there was a viable rationale for the action: the former was precipitated in part by widespread discrimination against Jewish-­operated businesses, and the latter by state policies that kept Japanese from owning property. Those who call for a restriction of rights from group members, however, are likely to point to such subterfuge as emblematic of the group’s efforts to gain power or wealth covertly. Especially if the group can be perceived as

in Framing the moron
Joanne Woiak

. 1 Around 1900, the linkage between the concepts of alcoholism and racial degeneration shifted to a focus on hereditary effects and maternity, so that excessive drinking was identified as both a cause and a symptom of disability, and the problem was to be dealt with by eugenicists, public health doctors and state policy makers. 2 In both eras, the borderland of alcoholism served to legitimise professional expertise and institutional control over populations implicated in the alcohol problem

in Disability and the Victorians
Amrita Pande

reproductive violence cannot merely be about statistics, however alarming these statistics may be, but need to be connected to debates around state policies, private and public healthcare systems and the power and vulnerabilities embedded in birth and delivery. As Shabot (2016: 231) has convincingly argued, obstetric violence is gendered and embodied violence, ‘directed at women because they are women’. Violence against women while they give birth is an effective gendered mechanism of disciplining bodies of women when they are closest to nature and hence most threatening

in Birth controlled
Christine E. Hallett

Revolution, 1891–1924 (London:  Pimlico, 1997 [1996]); Sheila Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution, 3rd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008). On the New Economic Policy of 1921, see: Chris Ward, Russia’s Cotton Workers and the New Economic Policy: Shop Floor Culture and State Policy, 1921–1929 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002). 51 Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution: 1. See also: Figes, A People’s Tragedy. 52 Britnieva, One Woman’s Story: 69. 53 Fitzpatrick, The Russian Revolution: 22. 54 ‘They had all committed the same crime, the crime of being

in Nurse Writers of the Great War
Abstract only
The moron as an atavistic subhuman
Gerald V. O’Brien

National Conference on Charities and Correction (Press of the Archer Printing Co., 1910), p. 300; Butler, ‘A notable factor of social degeneracy’, p. 17. 63 G.C. Davenport, ‘Hereditary crime’, American Journal of Sociology 13 (November 1907), 402. 64 H.H. Goddard, ‘The basis for state policy: Social investigation and prevention’, Survey 27 (1912), 1853. 65 C.F. Powlison, ‘Behold a sower went forth to sow’, Birth Control Review 16:1 (1932), 6. 66 Guyer, ‘Sterilization’, p. 45. 67 See, for example, G.H. Parker, ‘The eugenics movement as a public service’, Science

in Framing the moron
Abstract only
War and medicine in World War I Germany
Heather R. Perry

well as state policies for them, ultimately shaped the treatment of those permanently injured in subsequent wars. Anderson’s study of disabled Britons reveals how rehabilitation programmes and policies developed for injured soldiers and war workers from both the First and Second World Wars had significant influence – sometimes positive, sometimes negative – on the civilian disabled population within the nation, while Beth Linker has argued that among the long-term legacies of US involvement in the Great War, one must not forget the establishment of a ‘rehabilitation

in Recycling the disabled
Patient work at the provincial mental hospitals in British Columbia, Canada, 1885–1920
Kathryn McKay

provincial asylums, later hospitals, of British Columbia contained narrative and statistical information regarding all aspects of institutional management, including patient work. These reports not only reflected the gendered and racialised facets of settler colonialism in British Columbia, but their emphases also shifted in accordance with the economic and social circumstances of the province, wider attitudes towards patient work, and the changing precepts of state policies. During the early years of the asylum, from 1872 to 1900, the complexity of the annual reports

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015
Stephen T. Casper

exaggerated by charismatic individuals seeking to assert a new role for themselves or for the purposes of telling good stories?27 Putting it differently, were circumstances surrounding the condition of the shell-shocked patient really the result of contrasting medical views of those patients between groups (i.e. psychiatrists and neurologists), or were they the result of a conflict between indecisive public opinion and state exigencies and economic realities?28 It is self-evidently true that if public sympathies and state policy had determined differently, then neurologists

in The neurologists
Colonialism and Native Health nursing in New Zealand, 1900–40
Linda Bryder

: Canterbury University Press, 2nd edn, 2005). 12 Maclean, Challenge for Health, p. 202. 13 On the Young Māori Party, see also R.  S. Hill, ‘Maori and state policy’, in G.  Byrnes (ed.), The New Oxford History of New Zealand (Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 521–5. 14 See P. A. Sargison, ‘Hei, Akenehi, 1877/78?–1910’, in The Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, vol. 3, 1900–1920 (Auckland: Auckland University Press with Bridget Williams Books, 1996), pp. 309–11. 15 P. Sargison, Notable Women in New Zealand/Te Hauora ki Aotearoa:  Ona Wahine Rongonui (Wellington

in Colonial caring