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This text aims to fill a gap in the field of Middle Eastern political studies by combining international relations theory with concrete case studies. It begins with an overview of the rules and features of the Middle East regional system—the arena in which the local states, including Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Israel and the Arab states of Syria, Jordan and Iraq, operate. The book goes on to analyse foreign-policy-making in key states, illustrating how systemic determinants constrain this policy-making, and how these constraints are dealt with in distinctive ways depending on the particular domestic features of the individual states. Finally, it goes on to look at the outcomes of state policies by examining several major conflicts including the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Gulf War, and the system of regional alignment. The study assesses the impact of international penetration in the region, including the historic reasons behind the formation of the regional state system. It also analyses the continued role of external great powers, such as the United States and the former Soviet Union, and explains the process by which the region has become incorporated into the global capitalist market.

Abstract only
Ahmad H. Sa’di

MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 08/19/2013, SPi Concluding remarks Reflections on Israeli policies Israeli policies of population management, surveillance and political control described in this book had not been entirely known before. Scholars who previously wrote on state–minority relations were largely guessing in the dark; thus, their assumptions and biases might have found their ways to the models or narratives they composed. Two widely held theses in Israeli social sciences were disproved in the current study: the absence of a clear state policy towards the

in Thorough surveillance
Abstract only
Ahmad H. Sa’di

and institutions – serves to elucidate the way in which this system worked during this particular historical period but also might shed light on the key elements of contemporary Israeli thinking on surveillance and political control. Despite the importance of this pivotal moment for understanding future developments, most Israeli social scientists have argued that no state policy had evolved during that period. This argument not only denies the existence of systematic thinking and consistency in the state’s actions, which the evidence from my archival research

in Thorough surveillance
Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria- Hungary
Rebekah Klein-Pejšová

excessive influx could endanger providing for the inhabitants.21 Jewish refugee aid and conflict with Hungarian state policy Rabbi Wéber’s success on behalf of the refugees already provided for by his community in Pőstyén was exceptional. While other provincial Hungarian Jewish communities energetically intervened on behalf of the Galician Jewish refugees sojourning in their towns (namely Pozsony, Stomfa, Győr, Hajdúnanás, Vágujhely, Miskolc and Ónod), their requests to receive the same temporary Austrian aid available as in Budapest was rejected. Rabbi Snyders of Győr

in Europe on the move
Abstract only
Ahmad H. Sa’di

, the religious composition of the teachers working in the Arab education system (including Druze schools) was as follows: Christians 45 per cent, Muslims 41 per cent, Jews 9 per cent, Druze 4 per cent and Baha’i 1 per cent (Avivi, 2007:298). Needless to say, Arab teachers did not properly promote state policy towards the Druze. Thus, a policy was adopted by Mr Gadish, the head of the Ministry of 05_Ahmad_Ch-4.indd 81 8/20/2013 1:54:41 PM MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 08/20/2013, SPi 82 thorough surveillance Education’s Arab Department, of employing Druze teachers

in Thorough surveillance
Abstract only
Ahmad H. Sa’di

and the intelligentsia. The emerging Palestinian educated strata challenged the state’s ability to control and manipulate the Palestinians. Employing the ‘intelligentsia’ aimed to avert their criticisms of state policies or even to mobilize it in institutionalizing the official discourse. Thus, the document states: nowadays there is a secondary and higher education, and an intelligentsia is emerging, which can collaborate with the state; however it is becoming a proletariat intelligentsia, very dangerous to the state, and if the problem remains unsolved, it will be

in Thorough surveillance
Kader Asmal

the African National Congress, looked at this matter in 1988 and proposed, in the seminal document which formed the basis for subsequent negotiations with the apartheid regime, that: It shall be state policy to promote the growth of a single national identity and loyalty binding on all South Africans. At the same time, the state shall recognise the linguistic and cultural diversity of the people and provide facilities for free linguistic and cultural development.4 We soon realised though that a single national identity could not be imposed by diktat (in a number of

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Surveillance through education
Ahmad H. Sa’di

Deshit Petah-Tikva T”R 5 years teacher in Kafr (Iraqi Jew) Qasim Zion Darwish Atar Mgd Mapai 6 years teacher in Kafr (Iraqi Jew) Qasim Salim Nakar Petah-Tikva Mapai 2 years teacher in Kafr (Iraqi jew) Qasim Na’ima Shmouel Rammat? Kindergarten [teacher] (Iraqi Jew) Gan ‘A List of Teachers in Kafr Qasim School’, September 1960 07_Ahmad_Ch-6.indd 129 8/19/2013 2:29:35 PM MUP FINAL PROOF – <STAGE>, 08/19/2013, SPi 130 thorough surveillance 2007:213–14) – a euphemism for airing opinions that were considered critical of state policies. This precarious existence led

in Thorough surveillance
Leonie Murray

flourishing of nationalist sentiment and statism was its overflow into the orgy of violent national confrontation of the First World War; the horrors of which, conversely, caused a great outpouring of pro-peace sentiment (negative) and firmly implanted the appreciation that the absence of war was the most desirable condition for the contemporary world. Importantly, however, this time the mood appeared also to have pervaded the halls of power. War, as an acceptable extension of state policy, for the first time in modern international history had become delegitimised. This

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
Ahmad H. Sa’di

had also been embroiled in the complex relations that Israel had with the Communist Bloc countries, but had conducted its struggle firmly within the realm of the law, even when the legality was the Emergency Regulations (Jiryis, 1976, 1981). Moreover, the Communist Party was principally active among the Palestinians and its impact on the Jewish community had been trivial all along. As some of these assertions might be contested, I shall discuss them succinctly before tackling the role of the Communist Party in the state policy of surveillance and political control

in Thorough surveillance