The book explores crucial questions concerning human social existence and its animal substrate, and the intersection between the human and the wolfishly bestial. The collection connects together innovative research on the cultural significance of wolves, wild children and werewolves from a variety of perspectives. We begin with the wolf itself as it has been interpreted as a cultural symbol and how it figures in contemporary debates about human existence, wilderness and nature. Alongside this, we consider eighteenth-century debates about wild children – often thought to have been raised by wolves and other animals – and their role in key questions about the origins of language and society. The collection continues with analyses of the modern werewolf and its cultural connotations in texts from nineteenth-century Gothic through early cinema to present-day television and Young Adult fiction, concluding with the transitions between animal and human in contemporary art, poetry and fashion.
representing slippages between them’.
In this respect the werewolf can be read as what Marjorie Garber, in the context of transvestism, has called a ‘third term’. For Garber, women dressed as men and vice versa are usually subsumed to one sex or the other by critical discourse, when in fact they operate as a third category in their own right. She explains:
The ‘third’ is that which questions binary thinking and
‘Tale of the
Spaniard’ Alonzo di Monçada in Charles Maturin’s
Melmoth the Wanderer (1820). Alonzo is relating to
John Melmoth, in painstaking detail, the story of his escape from the
monastery into which he had been coerced by his parents. While Alonzo
and his accomplice, the parricide, are concealed in an underground
vault, the latter recites a story of transvestism, cross-dressing and
done. Ned’s feelings of losing his father date from the moment he discovers his father’s trunk with dresses in it (18), but the true meaning of this transvestism doesn’t become clear until Mary explains the activities of the Children of Molly or Sons of Sieve (271–3) that Hart is attempting to revive. Carey apparently got the idea for this thread of the novel from Sidney Nolan’s painting Steve Hart Dressed as a Girl 1947, which was based on historical sources for the Kelly story. 38 Anne Marsh has argued that the inclusion of transvestism is a ‘queering’ of the
transposes onto young warriors’ dying bodies
the purpureus and the niveus of a young girl’s
blushing skin, with the effect of eroticising and feminising a young
man’s death on the battlefield as an image of defloration. 27 In his unfinished
Achilleid , it is in the story of Achilles’s
transvestism that Statius blends Virgilian epic, Ovidian witty
playfulness and Pindaric lyricism. When the Greeks
Germanic example is Kutluğ Ataman’s Lola and Billy the Kid , released in 1999 , a film about Turkish queerness and transvestism in contemporary Germany. Although the distinctiveness of Turkish Islamism has been explored in Özpetek’s work, the negotiation of Turkish queerness in other European locales would continue qualifying Kemalist and Islamist homophobia.
If my critical attention in this book has been devoted to, chiefly, queer Muslim artists located in the Anglophone West, with the exceptions of France and Italy, the North/South axis
encouraged to identify with and be sympathetic to Ruth in the opening scenes, by the end she is callous and evil: the final episodes can be seen as constituting a betrayal or trick in terms of the earlier characterisation. The change in direction has important ramifications for the semi-otic meanings attached to Ruth’s physical presentation, as it implies that her facial hair, which may originally have elicited pity, comes to allude to a range of ‘sexual perversions’: bestiality; lesbianism; transvestism; trans-sexuality and sado-masochism. Along with the editing style
governess’ was ‘an exercise in suppressed camp’,
while Bryden saw ‘straight if muted camping: a comic performance
based on recognizable masculine imitation of female mannerisms’
(as noted above, this was for Shulman ‘high queerdom’).
But while Audrey and Celia could be safely relegated to a zone of comic
transvestism where they posed no sexual threat, this was not the case
with Richard Kay’s Phoebe. He was
Catholicism, gender and race in two novels by Louise Erdrich
other theorists, it seems clear to me that within Gender and Sexuality Studies, a hierarchy has been established which accepts that certain manifestations of gender ambiguity are more subversive than others: male-to-female cross-dressing is more subversive than female-to-male transvestism; queer subjects are more subversive than heterosexual subjects. Those who subscribe to such assumptions could learn from the work of a growing body of critics of passing, who recognise the redundancy of the subversive versus complicit debate and wonder what else passing could
’ celebration of the beauty of youths and boys,
as it does to early modern social reality. On the nature of the ‘boy’ as an erotic object
in this period, see (for example) P. Stallybrass, ‘Transvestism and the Body Beneath:
Speculating on the Boy Actor’, in Erotic Politics, ed. S. Zimmerman (New York, 1992),
pp. 65–83; and L. Jardine, Still Harping on Daughters (Brighton, 1983).
Loughlin, Same-sex desire in early modern England.indd 12
relationship between sodomitical desire and statecraft. In the anonymous
satirical poem The