important part of their research careers. In this chapter we will explore the history of research communication, from research professionalisation to the creation of learned societies and public lectures, the role of museums and exhibitions, covering almost four hundred years of notable research communication activities and setting the scene for developments from the twentiethcentury onwards which will be covered in the remainder of the book. This chapter will draw to a close at the outset of the twentiethcentury, at the end of an era when research had shifted from the
the idea that someone may generate valid questions or perspectives or seek to influence the impacts of your research can be unsettling.
In sum, since the middle of the twentiethcentury, science has been slipping from the high peak it once occupied and the citizen’s relationship to science has changed. Citizens feel less intimidated when it comes to science and technology. Scientists have become less remote … A new term is needed to describe this sense of empowerment – the sense that every citizen is part of the ball game of science and technology because
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to go about this, with an assumption that improved communication would assist in resolving issues associated with poor public understanding. This paralleled work in formal educational contexts which, since the middle of the twentiethcentury, had sought to improve scientific literacy internationally (Wilkinson, 2010 ; DeBoer, 2000 ). However, as many scientists were considering the role of communication in their work for the first time, some approaches were marred by reliance on a theory which became known as the ‘deficit model’, an assumption that communication
communication activities through the latter half of the twentiethcentury. Funders have multiple reasons for encouraging evaluation within projects: it allows them to monitor that aims have been achieved; the success and pitfalls of particular approaches, opportunities or collaborations; and provides scope to consider the broader field of activities which they might be supporting. Unfortunately, the encouragement amongst funders to embed evaluation in communication projects may, at times, drive researchers to see funders’ requirements as the ultimate purpose for evaluation
We begin the third part of the book with quotations from two novels by E. L. Doctorow, an American widely admired for his historical fiction who wrote mostly in the second half of the twentiethcentury. Both quotations consist of a single paragraph, the first from Ragtime , published in 1974:
After the victory at Torreón, Younger Brother wore the cartridge belts crisscrossed over his chest. He was a villista but dreamed of going on and finding Zapata. The army rode on the tops of railroad freight cars. With the troops went their
from morality, which involves a judgement on the part of the individual as to what is the appropriate moral behaviour (Wiles, 2013 ). Whether ethics should be applied or a matter for philosophical debate has not always been agreed upon; however, in the twentiethcentury increased ethical debate around topics such as war, women’s rights, environmental and medical issues saw a resurgence of applied ethical thinking (Attfield, 2012 ), demanding ethical practice beyond consideration of ethical issues alone. Alongside this, increased research, particularly associated
for communicating with people directly, then there are highly likely to be opportunities both on the doorstep of your tower and, perhaps more importantly, a few steps away.
There is a plethora of face-to-face opportunities for communication available to researchers and participants today. Since the latter decades of the twentiethcentury there has been a growing trend to map how various countries globally participate in arts and cultural activities (Schuster, 2007 ; Morrone, 2006 ) and many of the sites which these