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Gemma King

2 A brief history of multilingualism in  French cinema F rench multilingual cinema is primarily a contemporary pheno­­ menon. Not only have vastly more multilingual films been released in France since 2005 than in any earlier period, but a far greater number of contemporary films engage with multilingualism in profound ways than ever before. Multilingualism is a central aspect of these films’ dialogues and narratives. However, it would be misleading to present multilingual cinema as a phenomenon invented in the twenty-first century. The twentieth century may

in Decentring France
Firearm iconography in Western literature and film
Justin A. Joyce

the collective action of national defense, while the swiftly drawn pistol symbolizes the promise of an autonomous, self-reliant individual of the twentieth century and that individual’s right to act in his or her own defense. Chronologically, the emphasis on aim embodied by the rifle reigned from Cooper’s early frontier novels until the outlaw heroics of the dime novel supplanted the rifle’s accuracy with the speed of the pistol. The Western has long been in the business of performing the cultural work of making armed Americans, to echo Fisher from the epigraph

in Gunslinging justice
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Stuart Hanson

and encompassing the development of celluloid film and its projection to a large audience. It is also the result of the efforts to create spaces for the public exhibition of moving images; grand spaces which have embraced and reflected the great modernist project of the twentieth century. Hansen argues that cinema was integral to the notion of ‘modern life’ with all of its upheavals and sensuous pleasures

in From silent screen to multi-screen
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James Chapman

Adventures of Robin Hood), as a class warrior (Robin of Sherwood) or as a symbol of disenfranchised youth culture (Robin Hood): the point is that in all these guises he remains a defender of liberty and a champion of the poor and oppressed. The swashbuckling hero has a particular appeal for Anglophone cultures where the ethos of chivalry has offered a dominant ideal of masculinity for much of the twentieth century. The literary historian John Fraser has explored this phenomenon in his book America and the Patterns of Chivalry: The family of chivalric heroes has been by far

in Swashbucklers
Open Access (free)
Ian Scott and Henry Thompson

the nation’s most visceral twentieth-​century event. Therefore, this chapter traces the evolution of Stone’s political consciousness and his articulation of America’s twentieth-​century outlook by revisiting JFK, the film that placed Stone centre-​stage in this assault on establishment doctrine and routine. It then considers how that critique was honed in his subsequent documentary work, in particular Comandante (2003) and South of the Border (2010). The chapter also revisits the debate about drama-​as-​history, as well as locating Stone’s documentary work within

in The cinema of Oliver Stone
The portrayal of tattoos in Sarah Hall’s The electric Michelangelo and Alan Kent’s Voodoo pilchard
Hywel Dix

the early twentieth century, they are also presented as questioning those same social structures in a politically challenging, even radical, way. In other words, Hall’s ‘criminal’ tattooists are also to be seen as political revolutionaries precisely by refusing the distinction between art and social commitment and by bringing the activities of one into the domain of the other. The second novel to be discussed, Kent’s Voodoo pilchard , is set in twenty-first-century Cornwall – the setting for all of Kent’s work, just as all of Hall’s novels

in Tattoos in crime and detective narratives
Michael Temple

française and one of the most influential personalities in twentieth-century film culture. It is possible that Langlois’s words, composed for the celebration of the Cinémathèque’s twentieth anniversary, may now sound somewhat extreme, excessive, even slightly absurd. For how can a single artist, man or woman, be said to embody in such a mysterious way the essence of an art form? Is it the legendary story of Vigo’s tragic life that

in Jean Vigo
Darryl F. Zanuck’s Les Misérables (1935)
Guerric DeBona

has been a renewed interest in the adaptation strategies surrounding Les Misérables, inviting us to explore the phenomenon of the great French novel even further.1 As I have argued at length elsewhere, there are at least three useful coordinates when contemplating what used to be called ‘the novel into film’. The cultural politics of authorship, intertextual or collateral considerations, together with cultural value form a kind of blueprint for an investigation in adaptation. For the purposes of this essay, then, I propose interrogating Twentieth Century Pictures

in French literature on screen
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Christopher Lloyd

(Truffaut 2000). It is certainly true that all Clouzot’s feature films offer us painstaking reconstructions of a recognisable social world, ranging from Paris and provincial France in the late nineteenth century and mid-twentieth century to Palestine and Central America. In some cases, the background is sufficiently detailed and accurate for the films to acquire a genuine documentary value, insofar as they offer spectators historical insights into past customs, institutions and periods (such as the music hall in Quai des Orfèvres). Indeed, it is tempting to reverse Truffaut

in Henri-Georges Clouzot
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David Murphy and Patrick Williams

the United States, where he studied at the Pasadena Playhouse in California. Apart from the quality of the courses on offer, the great attraction of the United States for Chahine was that it was the source of the films he most loved. After his return from the States, however, rather than working in the theatre in line with his training, Chahine got a job with Twentieth-Century Fox, and, despite his lack

in Postcolonial African cinema