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of the twentieth century, when the feverish construction of offices and shopping-centres briefly opened archaeological windows on to the origins and sequence of urban development. In consequence the Museum of London, successor to the Guildhall Museum, and numerous sister institutions in the regions now house collections of material objects which can give substance to a medieval urban history

in Towns in medieval England
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It is a truth nearly universally acknowledged that the legislators of Anglo-Saxon England lacked a sophisticated, theoretical understanding of both law and politics. In early twentieth-century scholarship, this belief underlay such blunt statements as William Dunning’s claim that ‘the Middle Age [sic] was unpolitical’, and Sir Frederick Pollock’s more elaborate, if equally

in The political writings of Archbishop Wulfstan of York
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differently, the potential for conflicting interpretations. 285 For example, classical and early medieval texts including De divortio refer only to concubines and wives: the concept of ‘Friedelehe’, a supposedly lesser form of marriage into which Waldrada entered, is a pure invention of early twentieth-century historians. 286 Yet there was no

in The divorce of King Lothar and Queen Theutberga

passed as it were, through an orgy, and when the white light of morning comes he will have an attack of despair, profound anguish with tears and perhaps a vow of pilgrimage and a conspicuous conversion’. 3 Not surprisingly, such extravagance produced a backlash. In the course of the twentieth century historians generally became much less willing to ascribe

in The Black Death
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John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

aspects of the academic study of heresy is the importance and inescapability of thinking critically about the sources. The foundational work in the early twentieth century of Herbert Grundmann – identifying the recurrent topoi or literary stereotypes used to depict heretics, and the gap between these and reality – has since been joined by a host of other works. 7 Historians have focused particularly on critical approaches to inquisition records, seeing them as containing ‘filters’ or framing elements that distort the picture

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300
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knowledge he acquired through local contacts with information which was disseminated nationally. By contrast, the authors of the Westminster Chronicle were very close to the heart of government. It was originally written as a continuation of the Polychronicon of Ranulph Higden and was published in 1886 as the ninth volume of that work; 26 in the early twentieth century

in The reign of Richard II

of Bishop Otto, all written between approximately 1140 and 1160: the one by a monk of Prüfening translated here, a second by Ebo of Michelsberg, and a third by Herbord of Michelsberg. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, scholars argued that Ebo and Herbord’s were the oldest, with the Prüfening monk copying from their works when writing his own. 12 This older argument is the principal reason

in Noble Society

, and in eastern Saxony. At the same time, for understanding political, social, religious and economic developments in the region between Saxony and Bohemia during the early twelfth century, it is a rich, almost unparalleled source. Nationalist historians of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries envisioned a state of permanent enmity between Germans and Slavs, but this text compels a more nuanced

in Noble Society
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the confidence that this historical method inspired in its heyday. Much of the editing of the Merovingian texts in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was outstanding, and the two scholars responsible for producing the Scriptores Rerum Merovingicarum, Bruno Krusch and his pupil, Wilhelm Levison, dominated the field of Merovingian history for over a generation. Although the criteria by

in Late Merovingian France
Jews as Europeans in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries

considerable attention to the role of Jews as intermediaries and cultural brokers, notably between the Classic Mediterranean heritage, Islam and the medieval West. This is rather surprising when we consider the extraordinary prominence in twentieth century cultural, intellectual and public life of members of this small people which, even at its demographic peak before the

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600