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century was disproportionately influenced by Scottish and Welsh figures such as Keir Hardie, David Lloyd George, Ramsay MacDonald, James Maxton, Aneurin Bevan, Roy Jenkins, Neil Kinnock and John Smith but the contribution of English radicals is also of major significance and the focus of this chapter is on the contribution of the English left, particularly in the twentieth century

in These Englands

of the older liberal humanist tradition, and with a few flashes of fervour and invention (Freeden, 1986). The ideationally powerful social liberalism, in many ways still the innovative progressive voice of twentieth-century Britain from today’s vantage point, 70 Progressive dilemmas: the historical long view increasingly came to be lodged at the heart of a broader social democratic tradition, long before a group of dissatisfied Labour and Liberal Party members attached that sobriquet to the short-lived Social Democratic Party (the least liberally inclined of the

in Making social democrats

from other groups. Arab liberalism in comparative perspective Any study of the post-1967 era would be incomplete without a comparative analysis of Arab liberal discourse that looks closely at the evolution of its human quotient, geographical span, media and civic institutions, ideological themes, and intellectual standing. Human profile Formative liberalism in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was the purview of educated professionals—mainly lawyers, journalists, newspaper editors, and scholars. Most Arab liberals were from elite

in Arab liberal thought in the modern age
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seeking to address these questions this book has two principal objectives. First, it rehabilitates and re-examines the historical record of the NILP, an understudied and poorly understood phenomenon in Irish political studies. Second, it challenges the orthodox narrative of that party’s political fortunes throughout the twentieth century, by arguing that the NILP has suffered from an unfair critique in the scholarly literature. What this book does not attempt to do is to ‘wish away’ the deep-rooted antagonism that has been shown to exist between Protestants and

in A history of the Northern Ireland Labour Party
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Nationalism is perhaps the most powerful ideology of the last couple of centuries. We attempt here to distinguish a number of varieties of nationalism – liberal, reactionary and radical. There follows a brief history of nationalism from the pre-Renaissance period to the twentieth century, after which we consider whether nationalism as an ideology serves particular political

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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Autobiographical Education, 1945 –1975’, in Plurality and Individuality. Autobiographical Cultures in Europe (ed. Christa Hammerle), IFK Internationales Forschungzentrum, Kulturwissenschaften, Vienna, 1995, p. 90. 11 C. Waters, ‘Disorders of the Mind, Disorders of the Body Social: Peter Wildeblood and the Making of the Modern Homosexual’, in B. Conekin, F. Mort and C. Waters (eds), Moments of Modernity: Reconstructing Britain 1945 –1964 (London: Rivers Oram Press, 1999), p. 150. 12 M. Thomson, Psychological Subjects: Identity, Culture and Health in Twentieth Century Britain

in Young lives on the Left
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Introduction K eith L aybourn and John Shepherd For more than four decades, Professor Christopher Wrigley, affectionately known as Chris, has been a leading authority on British labour and trade union history, and nineteenth- and twentieth-century British history more generally, with much of his writing in the form of biography. Chris is one of the most influential British historians to have emerged since the Second World War and his ubiquity has earned him the reputation of being almost a Renaissance-like figure in the range and depth of his historical study

in Labour and working-class lives
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nineteenth century, particularly the challenge mounted to orthodox Marxism by the ‘revisionist’ school. We then analyse twentieth-century attempts to establish concrete political systems claiming ‘Marxist’ legitimacy, with particular attention to the rise and fall of the Soviet Union. Finally we examine attempts to reinterpret Marxism to make it relevant to twenty

in Understanding political ideas and movements
What we can learn from Marquandism in the making and unmaking of social democrats

dominant progressive form of the twentieth century – social democracy – can restart itself with any great influence in the twenty-first century. Yes, social democrats can find themselves occasionally in office, but further from real power than ever. If the lurch to the right isn’t to continue to even darker places, then the progressive response must surely take a very different form. Enter the ideas and political life journey of David Marquand. What can ‘Marquandism’ tell us about the political moment, and what we, the people who want a good society that is much more

in Making social democrats

effectively independent twenty-six-county Irish Free State and the devolved government of six-county Northern Ireland, which remained in political union with Britain within the United Kingdom. Na Fianna Éireann became the military trailblazers of the Irish nationalist movement in the early twentieth century. In 1914, Patrick Pearse proclaimed that ‘if the Fianna had not been founded in 1909, the [Irish] Volunteers of 1913 would never have arisen’. 3 The Fianna were probably the first Irish nationalist group to begin military training in the

in Na Fianna Éireann and the Irish Revolution, 1909–23