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Suspicions of witchcraft in Finland did not die out with the witch trials. 1 Traditional forms of magic and sorcery 2 continued to be not only suspected, but also practised in the Finnish countryside some two hundred years after the last witchcraft prosecutions in Finland, if we are to believe dozens of eyewitness accounts from farmers and labourers in the early twentieth century. 3 Although

in Witchcraft Continued
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A lived religious history of English Catholicism, 1945–82

Drawing upon a multi-disciplinary methodology employing diverse written sources, material practices and vivid life histories, Faith in the Family seeks to assess the impact of the Second Vatican Council on the ordinary believer, alongside contemporaneous shifts in British society relating to social mobility, the sixties, sexual morality, and secularisation. Chapters examine the changes in the Roman Catholic liturgy and Christology, devotion to Mary, the rosary and the place of women in the family and church, as well as the enduring (but shifting) popularity of Saints Bernadette and Thérèse.

Appealing to students of modern British gender and cultural history, as well as a general readership interested in religious life in Britain in the second half of the twentieth century, Faith in the Family illustrates that despite unmistakable differences in their cultural accoutrements and interpretations of Catholicism, English Catholics continued to identify with and practise the ‘Faith of Our Fathers’ before and after Vatican II.

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Popular magic in modern Europe

The study of witchcraft accusations in Europe during the period after the end of the witch trials is still in its infancy. Witches were scratched in England, swum in Germany, beaten in the Netherlands and shot in France. The continued widespread belief in witchcraft and magic in nineteenth- and twentieth-century France has received considerable academic attention. The book discusses the extent and nature of witchcraft accusations in the period and provides a general survey of the published work on the subject for an English audience. It explores the presence of magical elements in everyday life during the modern period in Spain. The book provides a general overview of vernacular magical beliefs and practices in Italy from the time of unification to the present, with particular attention to how these traditions have been studied. By functioning as mechanisms of social ethos and control, narratives of magical harm were assured a place at the very heart of rural Finnish social dynamics into the twentieth century. The book draws upon over 300 narratives recorded in rural Finland in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries that provide information concerning the social relations, tensions and strategies that framed sorcery and the counter-magic employed against it. It is concerned with a special form of witchcraft that is practised only amongst Hungarians living in Transylvania.

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and its people. By the middle of the twentieth century, however, massive social and cultural changes were already underway, and soon Irish society could no longer ignore them. The 1956 murder trial of midwife-turnedillegal-abortionist Mamie Cadden publicised the realities of reproduction for some women, betraying the constructed ideal of national motherhood and exposing the myth of Irish sexual purity. Women’s emigration, meanwhile, continued to be endemic; from 1951 to 1961, over half of all Irish emigrants were female, and the travels of many were framed as an

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950

of a more assimilable set of immigrants from Catholic Spain, Portugal and Italy in the 1940s and 1950s had meant that tensions had not surfaced over the questions of religious, racial and cultural homogeneity. With the earlier Eastern European migrants, questions arose about political loyalty. This proved to be an unreliable expectation in the second half of the twentieth century, as immigrants from an empire that had outlived its usefulness arrived in the labour-starved motherland and found themselves being blamed for being different, ghettoized and, in effect

in Postcolonial minorities in Britain and France
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’s working-class mothers prayed with their rosary beads ‘in church, home, on the street, in shops or queues, almost anywhere’.3 These accounts illustrate that lay Irish women came to represent faith and nation in the modern age. They testify to the central positions that lay women held in the religious worlds of nineteenth and twentieth-century Ireland even as they document both changes and continuities in how women practiced their faith from the post-famine decades to 1950. In the immediate aftermath of the Great Famine, the Irish Catholic Church remained institutionally

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950

3 The Irish Catholic mother Autobiographies and memoirs written in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries affirm the pivotal influence of the Irish Catholic mother. As Maynooth scholar Walter MacDonald reminisced in 1926: I love to think of my mother, who was quite unlike – superior to – any other woman whom I have met, of her class. ... She was always at work, heavy work very often, about the house – ­cleaning, washing, ironing, sewing, cooking … . I remember, above everything else, the reverent care with which she undressed us and put us to bed

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950

1 Women and Catholic culture Late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Ireland boasted a vast body of prescriptive literature that instructed women how to lead proper Catholic lives.1 A key example, Bernard O’Reilly’s 1883 advice book The Mirror of True Womanhood, conflated women’s religious and domestic duties: There is nothing on earth which the Creator and Lord of all things holds more dear than [the] home, in which … a mother’s unfailing and all-embracing tenderness will be, like the light and warmth of the sun in the heavens, the source of life, and joy

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950

bereaved families, including Irish playwright Sean O’Casey’s sister, were assisted by the Society in the twentieth century and identifies the benefits of its policy changes for widows and children. It also analyses the children’s transition from dependence to independent adulthood, evidence which serves as a barometer of the Society’s success in the twentieth century. ‘A new departure’ By the end of the nineteenth century, fifteen boards of guardians had appointed women’s committees to oversee the boarding out of workhouse children.3 The Pauper Children (Ireland) Act was

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940
The twentieth-century debate

4035 The debate.qxd:- 9/12/13 08:36 Page 117 5 The Tudor revolution in religion: the twentieth-century debate Introduction The figure of Henry VIII stands astride the Reformation century – a man of moods, at one moment terrifying and at another wooing his subjects, but always in command of the situation. But was he? At the very heart of the modern debate about the English Reformation lies the question – how far was the official Reformation the creation of the monarch? During the past 100 years many historians have turned their attention to this question

in The Debate on the English Reformation