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through oral history, but the people I interviewed were, of course, adults. The twentieth century’s total wars thrust their way into the domestic space, affecting children as never before. Bombing is just one potentially traumatising trigger in war. Trauma has a number of symptoms specific to children, which alter according to the child’s stage of development. In children under five, traumatic events may provoke anxious attachment behaviour and a loss of recently learnt behaviours, such as toilet training or speech. From around five or seven years old to about twelve, v

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Exploring the spectrum of Irish immigrants in the wartime British health sector

in Irish migration historiography have also emphasised the importance of Britain in the twentieth century as a destination, away from the primacy of post-Famine migration to America. 5 This chapter continues that focus by analysing an under-represented group in the historical literature. It adds to both the historiography of the social history of medicine and to

in Medicine, health and Irish experiences of conflict 1914–45
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Nurses from Belfast hospitals in the First World War

be used to provide a skeleton framework of the background of individual nurses' anguish. Much has been written about nursing and its reformation from a dubious, disorderly occupation in the early nineteenth century into a modern, skilled profession by the early twentieth century. The image of Sarah Gamp has been depicted as the model of the archetypal nurse in the 1840s and 1850

in Medicine, health and Irish experiences of conflict 1914–45
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’Europe, 15 September 1931, pp.  5–6, cited in Mysyrowicz, Autopsie, p. 319. 18 J. Winter, ‘Forms of kinship and remembrance in the aftermath of the Great War’, in J. Winter and E. Sivan (eds.), War and Remembrance in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 40. v 65 v Expecting bombing 19 A. Sauvy, Histoire économique de la France entre les deux guerres (Paris: Fayard, 1965–75), Vol. I, p. 31. 20 J.-M.  de Busscher, ‘A l’ombre des monuments des morts’, in O.  Barrot and P.  Ory (eds.), Entre deux guerres:  La création française 1919

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Reflections on Menke’s ‘Law and violence’

 –​outlined for a different purpose –​as just the tip of a much more substantial iceberg, namely the differentiation of the notion of reason, prompted by the Linguistic Turn of the first half of the twentieth century. The relation of public and communicative reason to our received philosophical notion of reason is not easy to conceive unless we insert a new distinction between the general idea of reason and what we are used to calling theoretical and practical reason: namely, the distinction between “speculative” reason (of which theoretical and practical reason become two

in Law and violence
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adults we became. So perhaps the child’s voice is not inaudible in the memories narrated by adults. While the title of this book may point towards it being about children, it is as almost as much about adults. Memories laid down in childhood now belong to adults, thus the sources are created by adults. The experiences, however, belong to children. Across the twentieth century there has been increasing interest in how war and other events distort or heighten memories, and therefore impact upon an individual’s sense of self. Psychologists and neuroscientists have v 41 v

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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Ian McEwan’s The Children Act and the limits of the legal practices in Menke’s ‘Law and violence’

through, indeed constituted by, the normalizing social practices they hope to transform. This is a familiar problem in twentieth-​century critical theory: we find it in Horkheimer and Adorno’s picture of subjects made in the image of the culture industry, and in Foucault’s account of the disciplinary regimes through which modern societies reproduce forms of individual identity.4 Indeed, Menke himself explicitly mentions the Foucauldian model in his account of the normalizing effects of social policy.5 An antidote to this position might conceivably be found in the work

in Law and violence
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, colonial clients, rogues and degenerates. Keen ( 1988 ) devised his classification by looking at Western propaganda produced in the first half of the twentieth century, resulting in ten enemy archetypes: aggressor, faceless threat, enemy of God, barbarian, imperialist, criminal or rogue actor, sadist, rapist-infanticide, vermin-beasts and death incarnate. Enemy archetypes merit attention because each has

in Political cartoons and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
The impact of the First World War on the 1918–19 influenza pandemic in Ulster

The last six months of the First World War coincided with one of the most virulent pandemics of the twentieth century. Dubbed ‘the Spanish flu’, it struck in three concurrent waves throughout the world and may have had a global mortality of 100 million. 1 There were three distinct waves of influenza in Ireland, which occurred in June 1918, October

in Medicine, health and Irish experiences of conflict 1914–45
Hallucinating conflict in the political and personal frontiers of Ulster during the IRA border campaign of 1920–22

twentieth-century Irish psychiatry. On the occasion of his death in 1944 his obituary writer remarked that with his passing they had lost ‘almost the last of those great figures who dominated the field of psychological medicine in Ireland’. 6 He was born in 1859 into a wealthy, Catholic, mercantile family from Limerick. In 1882 he graduated from the Royal College of Surgeons in

in Medicine, health and Irish experiences of conflict 1914–45