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5 Vaccine production, national security anxieties and the unstable state in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Mexico Ana María Carrillo Introduction Since pre-Columbian times, Mexico has experienced notable periods of progress in science and technology. Political, economic and social problems have, however, often interrupted these developments, thus the country has been forced to rebuild

in The politics of vaccination
Editor: Claire L. Jones

Drawing together essays written by scholars from Great Britain and the United States, this book provides an important contribution to the emerging field of disability history. It explores the development of modern transatlantic prosthetic industries in nineteenth and twentieth centuries and reveals how the co-alignment of medicine, industrial capitalism, and social norms shaped diverse lived experiences of prosthetic technologies and in turn, disability identities. Through case studies that focus on hearing aids, artificial tympanums, amplified telephones, artificial limbs, wigs and dentures, this book provides a new account of the historic relationship between prostheses, disability and industry. Essays draw on neglected source material, including patent records, trade literature and artefacts, to uncover the historic processes of commodification surrounding different prostheses and the involvement of neglected companies, philanthropists, medical practitioners, veterans, businessmen, wives, mothers and others in these processes. Its culturally informed commodification approach means that this book will be relevant to scholars interested in cultural, literary, social, political, medical, economic and commercial history.

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A cultural history of stress in twentieth-century Britain

Drawing on a wealth of sources including self-help books, Mass Observation diaries and directives, oral history interviews, social science research and popular culture, Feeling the strain examines why stress became the ubiquitous explanation for a range of everyday ills by the end of the twentieth century in Britain. It explores the popular, vernacular discourse of nerves and stress to uncover how ordinary people understood, explained and coped with the pressures and strains of daily life and illuminates not only how stress was known, but the ways in which that knowledge was produced.

By focusing on contemporary popular understandings, it reveals continuity of ideas about work, mental health, status, gender and individual weakness, as well as the socio-economic contexts that enabled stress to become the accepted explanation for a wide range of daily experiences. It foregrounds continuities in managing stress and changes in ideas about causation, revealing a vocabulary of ‘nerves’ and ‘nervous disorders’ as precursors to stress but also illustrating the mutability of the stress concept and how its very imprecision gave it utility.

Feeling the strain provides first-hand accounts from sufferers, families and colleagues and offers insight into self-help literature, the meanings of work and changing dynamics of domestic life over the century, delivering a complementary perspective to medical histories of stress and making a significant contribution to histories of everyday life and emotion in Britain during the twentieth century.

Perspectives on audiences and impact

Historians interact with a variety of audiences. In the history of medicine – our focus – audiences include government committees and commissions dealing with ethical issues in biomedicine; journalists asking for historical perspectives on new discoveries as well as abuses and controversies in medicine; curators and visitors at museums; sometimes even medical researchers utilizing historical material. A particularly prominent audience for historians of medicine is in health care, students as well as practitioners. An important aim of the book is to challenge the idea that communication between researchers and their audiences is unidirectional. This is achieved by employing a media theoretical perspective to discuss how historians create audiences for academic knowledge production (‘audiencing’). The theme is opportune not least because the measurement of ‘impact’ is rapidly becoming a policy tool. The book’s 10 chapters explore the history of medicine’s relationships with its audiences, from the early twentieth century to the present. Throughout the authors discuss how historians of medicine and others have interacted with and impacted audiences. Topics include medical education, policy-making, exhibitions and museums, film and television.

The sanatorium patient and sanatorium nursing, c. 1908–52

3 ‘In the company of those similarly afflicted’: The sanatorium patient and sanatorium nursing, c. 1908–52 Martin S. McNamara and Gerard M. Fealy Introduction In the first half of the twentieth century, pulmonary tuberculosis was one of the major causes of death in Ireland. Aside from its immediate impact on the health of the population, tuberculosis was socially constructed within cultural, religious and secular discourses that attributed numerous meanings to the disease, variously associating it with climate-related ‘decline’ and familial ‘delicacy’. Holding

in Histories of nursing practice
Dr Williams’ Pink Pills for Pale People and the hybrid pathways of Chinese modernity

tale also suggests the ubiquity and pervasiveness of the product to which it alludes. In real life, Dr Williams’ Pink Pills for Pale People never languished in the sea but made it across several oceans. This chapter examines advertisements for the product in Chinese-language publications in Shanghai during the early twentieth century, comparing them to English-language advertisements printed in Shanghai, England, and the United States. Much like the telephone poles that refuse to be silenced, the long advertising history of Dr Williams’ Pink Pills

in Progress and pathology
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From physician to neurologist

, institutions, and ideas all located in the complex, shifting social and cultural ferment of nineteenth- and twentieth-century Britain. Over that two-century period physicians and scientists found themselves, often reluctantly, occupying a new role as members of an ever-more specialist and ever-more medical enterprise called neurology. That story of their reluctance not only describes the by now well-worn tale of medical resistance to the advance of specialisation; significantly, it also calls attention to the fact that in Britain neurology was considered a socially

in The neurologists
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conceptions of work for both men and women in paid employment in the late twentieth century, which privileged endurance, competition and toughness. To find work distressing or difficult to cope with was therefore existentially problematic and for some simply too damaging an admission to make. The idea that stress was something to be ‘despised’ also tied it to notions of shame and a sense that the individual was not demonstrating the stoicism that had been so closely related to notions of Britishness in the past and which continued to be referenced

in Feeling the strain
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did not recognise them as resulting from stress, even when they appeared to have no other apparent cause. I have argued in this book that throughout the twentieth century, people often privileged physical symptoms and explanations over the psychological, or what they believed to be a mental health problem. They used such physical ailments, which were often related to the digestive system, as proxies for their stress, sometimes knowingly, but often unconsciously. While physical symptoms were obviously real, and in James’ case were indeed

in Feeling the strain
Patient work in colonial mental hospitals in South Asia, c. 1818–1948

5 ‘Useful both to the patients as well as to the State’: Patient work in colonial mental hospitals in South Asia, c. 1818–1948 Waltraud Ernst This chapter focuses on the organisation of patient work in the mental institutions established by the British for both Europeans and Indians in South Asia. It explores the changing and plural meanings of work in relation to prevalent medical ideas and practices in different institutional settings in British-held territories from the early nineteenth to the middle of the twentieth centuries. Different aspects of work will

in Work, psychiatry and society, c. 1750–2015