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Population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’, 1912–22

Population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’ v 13 v From imperial dreams to the refugee problem: population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’, 1912–22 Emilia Salvanou Introduction The twentieth century came to be known as the century of the refugee, with the Great War marking the beginning of decades of forced human mobility.1 Nevertheless, especially as far as the Balkans are concerned, population mobility had started much earlier. By the nineteenth century, with the prospect of a diffusing discourse of nationalism and an Ottoman Empire that

in Europe on the move
Refugees in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire during the First World War

v 6 v ‘Cities of barracks’: refugees in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire during the First World War Martina Hermann The unprecedented mass displacement of civilians during the First World War represents a crucial component of the seminal catastrophe of the twentieth century. All belligerent nations confronted issues generated by large population movements. However, while enemy aggression and the loss of territory were the primary factors causing refugees to flee, at the same time, the multinational Habsburg Empire forcibly evacuated its own nationals

in Europe on the move
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Refugees in the era of the Great War

This book talks about the mass displacement of civilians, estimated to be 14 to 15 million, in the twentieth-century Europe during the First World War. It looks at the causes and consequences of the refugee crisis and its aftermath, and the attempts to understand its significance. Key sites of displacement extended from Belgium to Armenia, taking in France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, East Prussia, the Russian Empire, Bulgaria, Greece, Turkey and Serbia. The German army's occupation of Belgium, France, Poland and Lithuania prompted the mass flight of refugees, as did Russia's invasion of East Prussia in 1914. Jewish, Ruthenian and Polish civilians in the Habsburg Empire fled their homes or were deported by the military to distant locations. Following Italy's attack on Austria-Hungary in May 1915, the Habsburg authorities ordered around 100,000 Slovenian subjects of the empire to leave. The Austrian and Bulgarian invasion of Serbia brought about a humanitarian catastrophe as civilians and the remnants of the Serbian army sought safety elsewhere. However, mass flight of civilian refugees did not begin in 1914 nor did it come to an end in 1918. Muslim refugees fled to the relative safety of Anatolia in order to escape violent persecution by Bulgarian and other forces during the Balkan Wars on 1912-13. There were complex movements of population between Greece, Bulgaria and Turkey before 1914. The complex process of repatriation and resettlement affected soldiers and civilians alike and rarely took place in stable or peaceful circumstances.

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Introduction Introduction Peter Gatrell The English writer and critic John Berger regarded the twentieth century as ‘the century of departure, of migration, of exodus, of disappearance: the century of people helplessly seeing others, who were close to them, disappear over the horizon’.1 Berger’s characterisation of ‘helplessness’ invites us to consider not only how people were rendered liable to sudden and involuntary displacement, but also how those processes were represented at the time and subsequently. Global conflicts, revolutions and civil wars have

in Europe on the move
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also be seen in the context of the literature on summit diplomacy, that is, multilateral or bilateral meetings between international leaders. 90 The Paris Peace Conference of 1919, attended by David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson, was the first summit conference of the twentieth century, and during the Second World War the ‘Big Three’ conclaves between Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill helped to

in A ‘special relationship’?
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Harold Wilson and Lyndon B. Johnson: a ‘special relationship’?

. 55 The following present an essentially negative picture of the personal relationship between Wilson and Johnson: Dickie, ‘Special’ No More; Sylvia Ellis, ‘Lyndon B. Johnson, Harold Wilson and the Vietnam War: a not-so special relationship?’, in Jonathan Hollowell (ed.), Twentieth Century Anglo-American Relations (London: Palgrave, 2001), pp. 180–204; Ritchie Ovendale

in A ‘special relationship’?
Refugee communities and the state in France, 1914–18

bypass the state because of its failures to adequately organise aid, and thus undermined their attachment to the wartime national community. Such an interpretation, however, belies the central role that local identities and solidarities played within concepts of citizenship in early twentieth-century France. Traditionally, the French Third Republic has been viewed as a centralising, Jacobin state, as characterised by Eugen Weber in his influential argument that after 1870 urban France ‘colonised’ the provinces using institutions such as the army and the primary school

in Europe on the move

cleansing during the twentieth century, the Balkan Wars led to considerable loss of life and to the forced resettlement of population groups.42 The Balkan Wars and the decade of political rearrangements that followed highlighted the figure of the refugee as an object of persecution by military troops and administrative authorities and the symbol of territorial contestation, whose life had been disrupted and who was expected to resettle, often with little assistance. The pattern of constant resettlement in the course of several years is nicely illustrated in an account

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Refugees and state building in Lithuania and Courland, 1914–21

Ruzeckas (ed.), Lietuva Didžiajame kare [Lithuania during the Great War ] (Vilnius: Wydawnictwo Vilniaus Žodis, 1939), pp. 259–67. v 61 v Klaus Richter 19 Lipschitz, Jews of Kurland. 20 Lietuvos ūkininkas, 3 July 1915, p. 162; Daina Bleiere, History of Latvia: the Twentieth Century (Riga: Jumava, 2006), pp. 76–7. 21 ‘Musų pabėgėliai’ [Our refugees], Lietuvos žinios, 18 February 1915. 22 Nemakščia, Ras. apskr. [‘Nemakščia, Raseiniai district’], Lietuvos žinios, 25 February 1915. 23 ‘Musų pabėgėliai’, Lietuvos žinios, 8 March 1915. 24 ‘Lietuvių neatsargumas

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to organise an impressive degree of social protection for refugees, to exemplify sacrifice and to demonstrate that Ukrainian public opinion was sympathetic towards refugees from a different ethnic background. The agreements between the Ukrainian party and Austrian-Hungarian, German, Polish and Russian representations concerning refugee repatriation became the forerunner of international regulation of the new humanitarian problem after the end of the First World War. These agreements were amongst the first to be agreed in the twentieth century. Many of those who

in Europe on the move