Journeys, Mobile Emotions (Farnham, 2009), p. 9;
H. Wojtczak, ‘The railwaywoman’s journey’, in ibid., p. 54; and H. Wojtczak,
Railwaywomen: Exploitation, Betrayal and Triumph in the Workplace (Hastings, 2005),
pp. 5, 6, 19, 31, 107.
12 S. Smith, Moving Lives: Twentieth-Century Women’s Travel Writing (Minneapolis and
London, 2001), p. 172.
13 D.H. Aldcroft, ‘A new chapter in transport history: the twentieth-century revolution’,
JTH, 3:3 (February 1976), 218.
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women, travel and identity
14 Nine of these students published their accounts under their
From the turn of the twentiethcentury images of women journeyers
began to appear far more frequently in transport company advertising.
This corresponds with the shift within the advertising industry away
from advertisements that focused upon factual content, such as price,
utility and quality, after 1880 towards associational images. Images became
more important than providing information. Soap advertisements commonly featured beautiful women in various stages of undress from the
late Victorian era onwards.22 Advertisements for an object or service
Beyond the witch trials
Counter-witchcraft and popular magic
The archaeology of counter-witchcraft
and popular magic
One aspect of the study of witchcraft and magic, which has not yet been
absorbed into the main stream of literature on the subject, is the archaeological
record of the subject. Objects such as witch-bottles, dried cats, horse skulls,
shoes, written charms and numerous other items have been discovered concealed inside houses in significant quantities from the early modern period
until well into the twentiethcentury. The locations
Between 1870 and 1940, millions of Britons embarked on journeys abroad by train and ship, leaving their homes to participate in one of the great ages of journeying. Millions of women unhesitatingly seized their opportunity to journey abroad; yet these journeys have remained largely invisible. This book aims to redress this imbalance through a close examination of forty women's journeys abroad. Thirty of these were undertaken for leisure and pleasure to and around Europe, the Middle East and Asia. One was undertaken to improve the woman's health, but was also a journey of leisure. Two were emigration voyages by women who sought new lives in New Zealand. One was a family-and-duty journey on a troopship by a woman accompanying her husband to an army posting in India. Five women journeyed as a requirement of their work as nurses, teachers and domestic servants. Finally, one journey was undertaken both out of religious conviction and to support a family member: one woman accompanied her husband to a missionary station in Zululand, South Africa. The sexual threat women journeyers faced was also not as severe as some contemporaries believed. Vision and observation were further keynotes in the journey abroad. The argument that women's travel involved a rejection of the domestic has thus greatly distorted the nature of much female mobility in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Some Victorian images disappeared, replaced by a strength and confidence that reflected women's changed status and their new sense of what they could achieve.
This book is based on a paradox and a coincidence. The paradox is that at the end of the late nineteenth and early twentiethcenturies, a period of profound secularisation in France, there emerged a generation of Catholic writers and intellectuals who were convinced that the rumours about God’s death had been greatly exaggerated. The coincidence is that, in the same period, English literature too saw a significant revival in Catholic writing. In France, the late novels of Joris Karl Huysmans, the plays of Paul Claudel and the religious
In this chapter we will attempt to synthesise some of the most common accounts of the history of secularisation in France and England during the nineteenth and early twentiethcenturies. Our aim is to arrive at some understanding of the nature of individual and societal secularisation in England and France, and assess, in spite of the vast differences, what correlations can be drawn between the two countries. This will help us understand more clearly the preoccupations of the French and English Catholic authors and the conditions of belief under which they
In the first set of problems we must include the dilemmas of belief and unbelief by which ultimate purposes for action are embraced or rejected. Another issue following logically from this first is that if faith posits God as the ultimate purpose or destiny of human action, in what ways could Catholic literature imaginatively depict the problem of moral autonomy from God? Two additional issues exemplify the dilemmas just raised. First, the theme of homosexuality found in some Catholic writings highlights the
themselves modern women. Multiple estimates have been made of how many Britons emigrated in the nineteenth
and early twentiethcenturies, with totals ranging from a few to tens of
millions.1 Recent calculations have suggested that between twelve and
almost nineteen million Britons emigrated between 1815 and 1930.2 Few
of these studies offer any significant commentary upon female migration,
however.3 The estimates that have been made of female migration vary.
One study of nineteenth-century emigration suggests that women made
up 39 per cent of all emigrants from England and
twentiethcentury, it is claimed,
Britons ‘moved up a class’ on holiday, exchanging their everyday habits
for the clothes, food, spending patterns, resorts and recreations of the
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women, travel and identity
class above them.45 Journey etiquette attempted to help women to ‘move
up’ the social order by showing them how to appropriate the behaviour
of those journeyers of a higher social status.
Women’s role as social arbiters was extremely important in British
society during this period: mistresses of large households, for example,
were responsible for organizing
sexual morality and found
the privacy in such heavily scrutinized environments to indulge in
clandestine amour. The journey abroad was restrained and proper in its
heterosexuality, and women usually observed contemporary mores about
female sexuality and chastity, as is to be expected given that the period
investigated here is not one characterized as sexually revolutionary, particularly compared to the later twentiethcentury. In being chaste they
again conformed to the behaviour that was expected of the ‘perfect’,
respectable female journeyer.
Class, both socio