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through oral history, but the people I interviewed were, of course, adults. The twentieth century’s total wars thrust their way into the domestic space, affecting children as never before. Bombing is just one potentially traumatising trigger in war. Trauma has a number of symptoms specific to children, which alter according to the child’s stage of development. In children under five, traumatic events may provoke anxious attachment behaviour and a loss of recently learnt behaviours, such as toilet training or speech. From around five or seven years old to about twelve, v

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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’Europe, 15 September 1931, pp.  5–6, cited in Mysyrowicz, Autopsie, p. 319. 18 J. Winter, ‘Forms of kinship and remembrance in the aftermath of the Great War’, in J. Winter and E. Sivan (eds.), War and Remembrance in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), p. 40. v 65 v Expecting bombing 19 A. Sauvy, Histoire économique de la France entre les deux guerres (Paris: Fayard, 1965–75), Vol. I, p. 31. 20 J.-M.  de Busscher, ‘A l’ombre des monuments des morts’, in O.  Barrot and P.  Ory (eds.), Entre deux guerres:  La création française 1919

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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adults we became. So perhaps the child’s voice is not inaudible in the memories narrated by adults. While the title of this book may point towards it being about children, it is as almost as much about adults. Memories laid down in childhood now belong to adults, thus the sources are created by adults. The experiences, however, belong to children. Across the twentieth century there has been increasing interest in how war and other events distort or heighten memories, and therefore impact upon an individual’s sense of self. Psychologists and neuroscientists have v 41 v

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
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these developments ‘marked a watershed in transatlantic relations’. 1 Some scholars have since argued for ‘a new and constructive Transatlantic Bargain for the twenty-first-century’. 2 Against this background and as we consign the twentieth century to history (chapter 2), 3 while major shifts ripple through global politics, how do we as academics assess the Atlantic World? It is time to critically reconsider the concept of the Atlantic World and the field of Transatlantic Studies. The birth of a

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered
Private organizations and governmentality

: This situation is unlikely to change, for the Atlantic has continued to widen and the market gap, the God gap, and the war gap show no signs of disappearing. The American Century in Europe is over. 5 Yet the end of the transatlantic era does not mean the end of the relevance of the transatlantic as a field of investigation. It is, in fact, its beginning. If one can talk of a distinctly transatlantic era, it must surely fall within the bounds of the twentieth century, taking in not only the rise (and relative decline) of the

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered
"On the political passions in Europe and America and their implications for Transatlantic History"

today as societies face levels of migration – and from non-Christian societies – that bring challenges to jobs and community values. The fourth issue – that of how to allocate claims to wealth and income – has usually run parallel with the others, but became the focus of conflict and ideological contestation in the twentieth century. Its particular bitterness helped create the level of conflictuality and passion that Eric Hobsbawm characterized as the age of extremes from 1914 to 1989. It helped generate the two totalizing ideologies of the

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered
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Humanity and relief in war and peace

contributions to national and imperial stock were properly nurtured. 14 As Anna Davin has shown, the coupling of child welfare and concerns about the moral fibre of the nation-state had wide appeal in early twentieth-century Britain. It also entailed precisely the kind of national service for women of which Millicent Garrett Fawcett and many of her fellow suffragists approved

in Calculating compassion
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The Wesley high schools were extraordinarily successful during the early years of the twentieth century ( figure 6 ). They were centres of learning, producers of public servants and much sought after by Burmese parents. 1 The early missionaries intended their schools to be nurseries for church leaders and proselytisers of new members. In the event the Mandalay Leper Home probably produced more converts than all the schools put together. The schools lost their lustre in the 1920s, caused many headaches during the

in Conflict, politics and proselytism
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The evolution of a subject

exceptionalism to trace the constitutional history of their young country backwards to Magna Carta of 1215 6 and even to the dark forests of Germany where the Anglo-Saxon peoples had originated. This brief depiction of what was being written from the seventeenth to the mid-twentieth centuries on the history of England’s (or more accurately Britain’s) colonies in North America will serve to explain how Robert Palmer, a historian of Europe based in the United States, could conceive of the existence of an Atlantic Community in past centuries when such a

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered
A programme for the teaching of history in the post- national era

Historians in the Twentieth Century (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 55–87; S. Berger, ‘The German Tradition of Historiography: 1800–1995’, in Mary Fulbrook (ed.), German History since 1800 (London: Arnold, 1997), pp. 477–92; E. Breisach, Historiography: Ancient, Medieval & Modern (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1999), pp. 228–67. 6 Berger, ‘The German Tradition of Historiography: 1800–1995’, p. 478. 7 Ibid. , p. 477; Baker, ‘National History in the Age of Michelet, Macaulay, and Bancroft

in The TransAtlantic reconsidered