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Cara Delay

and its people. By the middle of the twentieth century, however, massive social and cultural changes were already underway, and soon Irish society could no longer ignore them. The 1956 murder trial of midwife-turnedillegal-abortionist Mamie Cadden publicised the realities of reproduction for some women, betraying the constructed ideal of national motherhood and exposing the myth of Irish sexual purity. Women’s emigration, meanwhile, continued to be endemic; from 1951 to 1961, over half of all Irish emigrants were female, and the travels of many were framed as an

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
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Cara Delay

’s working-class mothers prayed with their rosary beads ‘in church, home, on the street, in shops or queues, almost anywhere’.3 These accounts illustrate that lay Irish women came to represent faith and nation in the modern age. They testify to the central positions that lay women held in the religious worlds of nineteenth and twentieth-century Ireland even as they document both changes and continuities in how women practiced their faith from the post-famine decades to 1950. In the immediate aftermath of the Great Famine, the Irish Catholic Church remained institutionally

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
Cara Delay

3 The Irish Catholic mother Autobiographies and memoirs written in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries affirm the pivotal influence of the Irish Catholic mother. As Maynooth scholar Walter MacDonald reminisced in 1926: I love to think of my mother, who was quite unlike – superior to – any other woman whom I have met, of her class. ... She was always at work, heavy work very often, about the house – ­cleaning, washing, ironing, sewing, cooking … . I remember, above everything else, the reverent care with which she undressed us and put us to bed

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
Cara Delay

1 Women and Catholic culture Late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Ireland boasted a vast body of prescriptive literature that instructed women how to lead proper Catholic lives.1 A key example, Bernard O’Reilly’s 1883 advice book The Mirror of True Womanhood, conflated women’s religious and domestic duties: There is nothing on earth which the Creator and Lord of all things holds more dear than [the] home, in which … a mother’s unfailing and all-embracing tenderness will be, like the light and warmth of the sun in the heavens, the source of life, and joy

in Irish women and the creation of modern Catholicism, 1850–1950
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Portraits of anarcho-Judaism
Author: Hayyim Rothman

The previously unexplored legacy of religious anarchism in traditional Jewish theology is examined for the first time in this book. Probing the life and thought of figures whose writings have gone largely unread since they were first published, Hayyim Rothman makes, in the first place, a case for the existence of this heritage. He shows that there existed, from the late nineteenth though the mid-twentieth century, a loosely connected group of rabbis and traditionalist thinkers who explicitly appealed to anarchist ideas in articulating the meaning of the Torah, of traditional practice, of Jewish life, and the mission of modern Jewry. Supported by close readings of the Yiddish and Hebrew writings of Yaakov Meir Zalkind, Yitshak Nahman Steinberg, Yehuda Leyb Don-Yahiya, Avraham Yehudah Hen, Natah Hofshi, Shmuel Alexandrov, and Yehudah Ashlag this book traces a complicated story about the intersection, not only of religion and anarchism, but also of pacifism and Zionism, prophetic anti-authoritarianism, and mystical antinomianism. Bringing to light, not merely fresh source material, but uncovering a train of modern Jewish political thought that has scarcely been imagined, much less studied, No masters but God is a groundbreaking contribution.

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David Geiringer

on changing values and beliefs, but an entirely new way of making sense of her existence. And ultimately, her eventual non-existence. This book is about the stories that people tell themselves about meaning, morality and being, and the way these stories changed in the second half of the twentieth century. Moreover, it’s about the everyday experiences that informed and were informed by these stories. Too often historians of

in The Pope and the pill
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Hayyim Rothman

the waning of religious authority after the turn of the twentieth century created an identity crisis; a successful rebellion against tradition mean that secularism had to be redefined in positive terms; it also permitted a degree of tolerance towards religiosity that seemed impossible before. A later stage of the same phenomenon has recently been addressed in greater detail by Lillian Turk and Jesse Cohn, who document a lively debate that took place on the pages of the Fraye Arbeter Shtime between 1937 and 1945, wherein anti-religious conviction persisted but was

in No masters but God
Hayyim Rothman

with those of Russian anarchism (Gamblin 2000 ) — at the turn of the twentieth century (Reisen 1926b , 604–608; Schapiro 1961 ; Kiel 1970 ). Steinberg subsequently entered the University of Moscow as a student of jurisprudence and became highly active in student politics. This brought him to the attention of the authorities; before Passover he was arrested, imprisoned, and threatened with Siberian exile — a sentence that was fortunately reduced to two-year exile in any destination. Officially freed two months later, on Shavuot, Steinberg

in No masters but God
Hayyim Rothman

. In the second half of the 1870s the shades began to fall. Officially cast as a fifth column supporting the Ottoman Empire during the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–78, Jews were subject to intense persecution (Neuburger 1996 ), which touched not only those who had resisted acculturation, but also enlightened proponents of Russification (Etkes 2010 ). Waves of astonishingly violent, and government sponsored, attacks on Jewish communities throughout the Pale followed, lasting through the turn of the twentieth century. These culminated with the 1903 Kishinev pogrom, in

in No masters but God
Hayyim Rothman

lest they toss him from the stage in their fury, for his rebuke is directed against them, against his own congregation. In contrast, the false prophet stands surely on his platform and lightheartedly glances about, basking in the appreciation of his congregation while he furiously rebukes others. (Tamaret 1992 , 51–52) The author of these lines, Aaron Shmuel Tamaret (1869–1931), was undoubtedly one of the true prophets, a twentieth-century Elijah who stood, as it were, on a Mt

in No masters but God