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Shailja Sharma

of a more assimilable set of immigrants from Catholic Spain, Portugal and Italy in the 1940s and 1950s had meant that tensions had not surfaced over the questions of religious, racial and cultural homogeneity. With the earlier Eastern European migrants, questions arose about political loyalty. This proved to be an unreliable expectation in the second half of the twentieth century, as immigrants from an empire that had outlived its usefulness arrived in the labour-starved motherland and found themselves being blamed for being different, ghettoized and, in effect

in Postcolonial minorities in Britain and France
June Cooper

bereaved families, including Irish playwright Sean O’Casey’s sister, were assisted by the Society in the twentieth century and identifies the benefits of its policy changes for widows and children. It also analyses the children’s transition from dependence to independent adulthood, evidence which serves as a barometer of the Society’s success in the twentieth century. ‘A new departure’ By the end of the nineteenth century, fifteen boards of guardians had appointed women’s committees to oversee the boarding out of workhouse children.3 The Pauper Children (Ireland) Act was

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940
Derek Fraser

There were three main developments which characterised the Leeds Jewish community in the decades after the Second World War: social mobility; relocation to a new ‘unwalled ghetto’; and numerical decline. For much of the twentieth century, as previous chapters have illustrated, Leeds Jewry was predominantly a proletarian community. When the writer first came to Leeds as a student in the late 1950s, he lodged with a family in Chapeltown where the householder was a cutter at Burtons, among the elite of the skilled workers there. Thousands

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Derek Fraser

growing immigrant population to become a burden on the state, with the attendant risks of provoking anti-Semitism. •  After the Edwardian Liberal reforms introduced old age pensions, health insurance and unemployment benefit, charities became supplementary to state provision and in the first half of the twentieth century philanthropy plugged the gaps in what was sometimes called ‘a social service state’. We saw that the Guardians in the 1930s were supplementing the income of some already in receipt of Public Assistance but at a level

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Joe Cleary

rites or feast days, were vigorously suppressed. The upshot, Larkin argued, was that by the end of the nineteenth century a much higher percentage of the Catholic population in Ireland complied with the canonical requirements for religious practice than in any other part of Europe (with the possible exception of Poland) and continued to do so until the late twentieth century. Nevertheless, despite the widespread success of the Devotional Revolution, the idea of a single, uniform Catholicism is best avoided. Some forms of pre-​Famine Catholicism and of folk religion

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
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June Cooper

change, it continued to express concerns that children were not always better off with their own kin. These concerns were reinforced by NSPCC reports of parental cruelty and exploitation of children. In the twentieth century the DPOS and PO Societies provided widows with targeted assistance. Mothers, elder siblings and extended kin found work and apprenticeships for their children and the DPOS generally supported their endeavours as long as they were confident that it would serve the children’s best interests. The DPOS provided mothers with respite if ill and

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940
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June Cooper

provisions and many other charities aimed at orphans, a system which attracted the attention of social reformers in the 1860s. Anti-cruelty legislation was introduced in the second half of the nineteenth century as reformist women such as Rosa Barrett, founder of the Dublin Aid Committee (later the NSPCC), advocated change. Children’s health became an issue of national importance in the late nineteenth century amid high infant and child mortality rates which caused increasing concerns for the rising generation.6 Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth century, PO

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940
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Street photography, humanism and the loss of innocence
Justin Carville

among the numbered Celtic-​cross headstones in quiet contemplation now appear in the hindsight and retrospection of the intervening period’s questioning of the Church to be themselves lost souls wandering aimlessly in separate directions, an allegory of the fate of late twentieth-​century Irish Catholicism. The impact of this image is not only in the moment of its taking, the instantaneous realisation on the part of the photographer that this particular time and place was in itself significant. Rather, it is also in the latency of the photograph and its capacity to

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
June Cooper

past that bound together heterogeneous elements in the Church of Ireland in the north and south of the country into the ­twentieth century. Social reform Women were at the forefront of social service provision and the driving force behind social reform in Ireland. Founded in 1897, the Philanthropic Reform Association, with leading members such as Rosa Barrett, sought workhouse reforms and initiated the Police Aided Children’s Clothing Society.2 The Alexandra Guild followed Octavia Hill’s lead in terms of social work and formed the Tenement Company 208 The

in The Protestant Orphan Society and its social significance in Ireland, 1828–1940
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Derek Fraser

somewhat patronising way, always refer to as ‘the provinces’. Moreover, Leeds was and is an important Jewish community in its own right, the third largest in the country, and in the mid-twentieth century was the city with the highest Jewish percentage (always said to be 5%). Developments in urban history have moved the subject away from a narrow emphasis on physical development and urban social problems (slums and suburbs) to encompass a broader cultural approach which makes this book particularly relevant. Urban historians have long contended that the study of cities

in Leeds and its Jewish Community