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John H. Arnold and Peter Biller

aspects of the academic study of heresy is the importance and inescapability of thinking critically about the sources. The foundational work in the early twentieth century of Herbert Grundmann – identifying the recurrent topoi or literary stereotypes used to depict heretics, and the gap between these and reality – has since been joined by a host of other works. 7 Historians have focused particularly on critical approaches to inquisition records, seeing them as containing ‘filters’ or framing elements that distort the picture

in Heresy and inquisition in France, 1200-1300
Jonathan R. Lyon

of Bishop Otto, all written between approximately 1140 and 1160: the one by a monk of Prüfening translated here, a second by Ebo of Michelsberg, and a third by Herbord of Michelsberg. During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, scholars argued that Ebo and Herbord’s were the oldest, with the Prüfening monk copying from their works when writing his own. 12 This older argument is the principal reason

in Noble Society
Jonathan R. Lyon and Lisa Wolverton

, and in eastern Saxony. At the same time, for understanding political, social, religious and economic developments in the region between Saxony and Bohemia during the early twelfth century, it is a rich, almost unparalleled source. Nationalist historians of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries envisioned a state of permanent enmity between Germans and Slavs, but this text compels a more nuanced

in Noble Society
Jews as Europeans in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
John Edwards

considerable attention to the role of Jews as intermediaries and cultural brokers, notably between the Classic Mediterranean heritage, Islam and the medieval West. This is rather surprising when we consider the extraordinary prominence in twentieth century cultural, intellectual and public life of members of this small people which, even at its demographic peak before the

in The Jews in western Europe 1400–1600
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In search of pre-Reformation English spirituality
R. N. Swanson

involvement in chain letters or pyramid selling. As for arguments based on ‘rationality’, they presuppose that twentieth-century rationality is necessarily better than the pre-Reformation variety. Yet, from that pre-Reformation perspective, could there be anything less rational than the denial of God; and than the assumption that death did not have to be approached without doing all in one’s power to ensure

in Catholic England