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Place, locality and memory

This book is a study of the history and memory of Anglo-Jewry from medieval times to the present and explores the construction of identities, both Jewish and non-Jewish, in relation to the concept of place. The introductory chapters provide a theoretical overview focusing on the nature of local studies. The book then moves into a chronological frame, starting with medieval Winchester, moving to early modern Portsmouth, and then it covers the evolution of Anglo-Jewry from emancipation to the twentieth century. Emphasis is placed on the impact on identities resulting from the complex relationship between migration (including transmigration) and the settlement of minority groups. Drawing upon a range of approaches, including history, cultural and literary studies, geography, Jewish and ethnic and racial studies, the book uses extensive sources including novels, poems, art, travel literature, autobiographical writing, official documentation, newspapers and census data.

The church as sacred space places the reader at the heart of medieval religious life, standing inside the church with the medieval laity in order to ask what the church meant to them and why. It examines the church as a building, idea, and community, and explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was crucial to its place at the centre of lay devotion and parish life. At a time when the parish church was facing competition for lay attention, and dissenting movements such as Lollardy were challenging the relevance of the material church, the book examines what was at stake in discussions of sanctity and its manifestations. Exploring a range of Middle English literature alongside liturgy, architecture, and material culture, the book explores the ways in which the sanctity of the church was constructed and maintained for the edification of the laity. Drawing on a wide range of contemporary theoretical approaches, the book offers a reading of the church as continually produced and negotiated by the rituals, performances, and practices of its lay communities, who were constantly being asked to attend to its material form, visual decorations, and significance. The meaning of the church was a dominant question in late-medieval religious culture and this book provides an invaluable context for students and academics working on lay religious experience and canonical Middle English texts.

Hidden narratives of Jewish settlement and movement in the inter-war years

. Such visibility was generally because of the concentration of Jews in certain locations, often linked to their place in the local economy. Until the early twentieth century, however, the Jews of Southampton were neither numerous enough nor sufficiently focused in particular occupations and residential areas to be a specific visual feature of the town’s topography. Post-expulsion, for example, the memory of medieval Anglo-Jewry in Southampton was limited to a particular house, rather than a major street as was the case in Winchester. 3 Similarly, after the

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066

local history. 17 They are typical of a genre of historical literature in Britain which emerged in the last quarter of the twentieth century. This new writing revealed a growing consciousness of the black experience and melded populist and academic approaches in work intended, with an explicit pedagogic purpose, to reach a wide audience. It would empower local minority communities by providing evidence of their ‘roots of the future’ 18 and serve an educational purpose in the cause of anti-racism and multi-culturalism. In Black Londoners

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066
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two rival Emanuel families who contributed so much to the civic and commercial life of Portsmouth and Southampton in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. But neither the water fountain in Southsea commemorating Emanuel Emanuel or the candelabra presented to Samuel Emanuel which is now in the mayor’s parlour in Southampton have any reference to the fact that these were the first Jewish mayors of their respective towns. Portraits of Samuel Emanuel and his wife, presented to him at the end of his period of office, are now hanging in Chilworth Manor Hotel, a

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066

institutions and where belief impinges on the purse, as it so often does, a certain amount of friction is inevitable. 10 In the early twentieth century, as will emerge, the ‘illegal’ activities of a later reverend/shochet led to his dismissal in Southampton. It is possible that financial ‘irregularity’ may have played a role in the controversy concerning Goldman. Yet the splitting of this new and small community indicate that there were wider questions about the direction the Southampton Hebrew Congregation was taking. It is clear that Samuel

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066

of the racial distinctiveness of Hampshire people. 50 The return of ‘race science’ from the late twentieth century onwards has revealed the incompleteness of the post-war UNESCO campaign at an intellectual level. 51 At a popular level, the continuation of and confusion about the use of race discourse, past and present, has been even greater. It is reflected locally in the continued use of Hudson as a reference point concerning Hampshire people – for example, his chapter on racial types in Hampshire Days was reproduced without comment in

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066
Transmigrancy, memory and local identities

eight children) arrived here from Hull, their entire riches consisting of sixpence. Late though it was (11pm) the railway officials considerately made up a large fire in one of the waiting rooms at the station, where the strangers passed the night. The porters, with equal kindness, collected among themselves a few coppers, wherewith they provided the poor family with bread and butter and coffee. 6 A visitor to Southampton in the early twentieth century commented how ‘In the streets near the docks a rare medley of peoples, races, and languages

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066
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Constructing the city of memories

almost unique.’ 93 In contrast to the treatment of medieval Jewry elsewhere in England, Kitchin’s interpretation of Richard’s chronicles proved to be a self-affirming ‘usable past’ not only for those in Winchester but also in the newly-emerging world of Anglo-Jewish heritage and historiography. Indeed, the idea of the city as a unique haven of tolerance was mutually reinforced, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, by local and Jewish historians who swapped references and disseminated each other’s work in their respective journals and newspapers. It

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066
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an integral part of mainstream historical research’.1 The process of deconfessionalisation and secularisation in Europe and the United States in the latter part of the twentieth century had made it possible to study medieval Christianity more on its own terms, instead of looking at it as the origin of particular trends in the Catholic Church that were often regarded as backward and/or an aberration of true Christianity. The cultural phenomenon known as the ‘Carolingian Renaissance’, or ‘Frankish reform movement’, for example, is now mainly understood as ‘the

in Religious Franks