nationalism, and by fostering a new and more popular culture of Arabic reading that included men and women from modest social classes, these BFBS editions had the potential to shift extant social hierarchies.
At the same time, their distribution had the potential to make and remake communities of readers within territories that bore some relation to colonial borders, which Britain (in what is now Egypt and Sudan) and France (in the Maghreb) were imposing during the late nineteenth and early twentiethcenturies. The society
In a study of Chinese medical
missions, John R. Stanley has argued that from the early years of the
twentiethcentury, medical missionaries refused increasingly to act as
jack-of-all-trades. Previously, they had been regarded as subordinates,
providing their professional services under the overall leadership of
the evangelising missionary-priests and subject to their command. From
small but flourishing community of Christian Bhils of this tract.
Anglican missionaries had converted his father to Christianity during
the first decade of the twentiethcentury – a time when many Bhils
had converted. Born in 1913, he had been a life-long Christian. He was
studying in primary school at the time of the massacre, and he told me
how casualties were carried to the nearby mission station at Biladiya to
work & getting money out of them are much diminished.’ 59
The opposition to the work of Christian missionaries by
caste Hindus was becoming more focused and strident during the first
decade of the twentiethcentury. This was due in part to the growing
the Arya Samaj and Indian nationalists in the region as a whole. The
Arya Samaj had in the closing years of the nineteenth century begun a
The nineteenth-century roots of segregationist folk theology in the American South
Stephen R. Haynes
so late in the twentiethcentury in defence of yet another form of racial discrimination is jarring’.
Relying solely on these scholars’ characterisations of Gillespie's tract, one would derive the mistaken impression that Gillespie not only invokes the curse of Ham but that this is the only part of Genesis with which he is concerned. In point of fact, however, Gillespie conspicuously ignores Genesis 9:20–7 and avoids any mention of a curse, slavery or subordination
and staged for a mid-twentieth-century audience.
And much more recently, in a work published at some point after 1995, Everett Ramsey, pastor of Faith Baptist Church in Louisville, Nebraska, was still calling on Winchell's testimony in support of his claim that racial difference is ‘more than skin deep’. The concluding pages sought to incite readers by attributing a range of ghastly ailments to race-mixing, by stirring up followers to resist all efforts at multiculturalism and by condemning blood transfusions and
In the twentieth-century emigration, this concern for an appropriate sacred language for Russian Orthodox worship also came to divide prominent theologians, notably Father Georges Florovsky and Georgii Fedotov, the latter a church historian formerly of the Leningrad religious underground. The two twentieth-century émigré churchmen essentially re-engaged the issue hidden in the debate between the two Filarets in the 1850s. Fedotov argued that Holy Scripture offered divinely inspired narratives of simple fishermen, carpenters, lepers and
social contexts. Settlers abroad continually faced the challenge of singing the Lord's song in a strange land, and if many colonised and conquered peoples resisted the imposition of biblical narratives, they also appropriated biblical tropes to their own ends. Across America, Africa, the Middle East and Asia, scriptural stories, scenes and phrases provided ideological ammunition for liberation and nationalist movements; and by the late nineteenth and early twentiethcenturies they also fuelled scholarly accounts that challenged the superiority and exceptionalism of
have tended to focus on the movement as an ideology or as a political network. J. Wilson identifies some of its key ideological traits as ardent monarchism, fundamentalist Protestantism and shrill imperialism.
The fact that Wilson could still observe these tenets first-hand in 1968 also indicates the staunchly conservative nature of the movement. It emerged from a specifically late Victorian confluence of khaki conservatism and evangelicalism. By the early twentiethcentury, Anglo-Israelism claimed to have 2
Biblical literacy and Khoesan national renewal in the Cape Colony
at the Cape came to be founded upon both race and religion, especially among Dutch communities on the Cape's frontiers (though it was only in the twentiethcentury that the idea of being a nation chosen by God would emerge more forcefully as a foundational element of Afrikaner nationalism).
The Bible was an important medium by which foreign ways of thinking and believing were imposed on the Khoesan. Nonetheless, as a text open to multiple interpretations, the Bible also