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concerned with down-to-earth improvements in the territories under his supervision, in addition to his literary and antiquarian pursuits. Conclusion To conclude, we can observe that neither the Romanticist nor the Utilitarian approach won complete sway in the policy decisions of the East India Company in India during the period between 1817 and 1857. While the Utilitarians (like James Mill

in Knowledge, mediation and empire

This book generates a critical framework through which to interrogate the way in which religious feminists have employed women's literature in their texts. This is in order that both the way we read literature and the literature we read might be subject to scrutiny, and that new reading practices be developed. Having both the critical and constructive agenda, this is a book in two parts. The first part locates the study of the use of women's writing by religious feminists in a much wider frame than has previously been attempted. In the past individual religious feminists have been criticised, often publicly and loudly, for the use they have made of particular literary texts. Having critically surveyed previously unacknowledged constraints under which religious feminists read women's literature, the second part of the book explores how the work of women poststructuralist thinkers and theorists can enrich the reading practices. It offers alternative models for an engagement between literature and theology. Julia Kristeva is best known within the academy for her unorthodox application of Lacanian theory to contemporary culture. Her work challenges religious feminists to reassess the utilitarian approaches to literary texts and enquire into whether these might have a more powerful political role when their status as literature is recognised and affirmed. The book elucidates Luce Irigaray's thinking on sexual difference and also demonstrates its significance for feminist religious readers.

political condition of Louis XV’s France. Combining radically sensationist views of the mind with a utilitarian approach to politics, Helvétius’s works presented a world in which Education and an ambivalent Enlightenment 35 education was saturated with social and political significance and social and political circumstances were inescapably educative. The corollary to his claim that education can do anything was, as a result, a sense that education takes place everywhere.29 These points were central to his 1758 work, De l’Esprit, and then to his later De l

in In pursuit of politics
James Tod’s journeys among the Rajputs

James Tod (1782-1835) spent twenty-two years in India (1800-1822), during the last five of which he was Political Agent of the British Government in India to the Western Rajput States in north-west India. His book studies Tod’s relationships with particular Rajput leaders and with the Rajputs as a group in general, in order to better understand his attempts to portray their history, geographical moorings and social customs to British and European readers. The book highlights Tod’s apparently numerous motivations in writing on the Rajputs: to bring knowledge about the Rajputs into European circles, to demonstrate that the Rajputs maintained historical records from the early middle ages and were thus not a primitive people without awareness of their own history, and to establish possible ethnic links between the warrior-like Rajputs and the peoples of Europe, as also between the feudal institutions of Rajputana and Europe. Fierce criticisms in Tod’s time of his ethnic and institutional hypotheses about connections between Rajputs and Europeans illustrate that Tod’s texts did not leave his readers indifferent.

The approach adopted uses available documents to go beyond a binary opposition between the colonisers and the colonised in India, by focusing on traces of friendly exchanges between Tod and his British colleagues on the one hand, and on the other hand, various members of the kingdoms of western India, with whom they interacted. Under themes like landscape, anthropology, science, Romantic literature, approaches to government policy, and knowledge exchanges in India and in London, this volume analyses Tod’s role as a mediator of knowledge through his travels across a little-known part of the British Empire in the early 19th century.

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placing it in opposition to the excessive authoritarianism of paternal domination. Her work ascribes a greater transformative potential to literature than we have encountered up till now. It thus challenges religious feminists to reassess our utilitarian approaches to literary texts and enquire into whether these might have a more powerful political role when their status as literature is recognised and affirmed. To assess the significance of Luce Irigaray’s work for feminist religious readers requires us to enter into an alternative conceptual space where language is

in Literature, theology and feminism
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James Tod’s role in knowledge exchanges with the Rajputs

Chapter 5 , ‘Tod’s Romantic approach as opposed to James Mill’s Utilitarian approach to British government in India’, puts side by side the ideological contexts and publications of James Mill (1773–1836) and James Tod (1782–1835), which appear on the surface to be diametrically opposed. Mill never visited India, adhered to Jeremy Bentham’s rational Utilitarian philosophy and published in 1817 his History

in Knowledge, mediation and empire
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also all unexplored areas of the globe. Formal and informal empires were as one in this surge towards classification and the creation of the stratigraphical map of the world. As always, pure and utilitarian approaches were yoked in uneasy partnership, but geology’s power to release both precious metals like gold and more workaday resources like coal were crucial in the developing institutionalisation

in Imperialism and the natural world
Voyages through empirical, common sense

wherever possible. 66 As Professor David Arnold has observed, Tod’s enthusiasm for Indian categories and concepts, his use of ‘ethno-botany’ or incorporation of vernacular terms, local names and indigenous topographical markers, in his allusions to Rajasthani plant species, shows his basic empathy for the region of his adoption. On the other hand, Tod always adopts a utilitarian approach to plants

in Knowledge, mediation and empire

Contagious Diseases Acts are the natural fruit of the creed I profess’. She countered their arguments, not by condemning a utilitarian approach to morality as such, but by maintaining that the ‘necessity’ of male sexual satisfaction was no such thing, and that ‘chastity is not opposed to health’. She challenged the utilitarian supporters of the Acts in their own terms. ‘Do you suppose that instinct, irresistibly impelling to vice

in Infidel feminism

depictions showed emphasis chiefly on topographical accuracy linked to military surveying and a utilitarian approach to exotic species of vegetation and geological strata. Nevertheless atmospheric effects and melancholy meditations on ruins also had their place among British visual portrayals of India around Tod’s time, as for example in scenes drawn by William Hodges and Thomas and William Daniell. 3

in Knowledge, mediation and empire