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programme, but they disagree about why this is the case. Similarly, we know from the history of political thought that utilitarians have been among the most vocal and influential champions of individual liberty (Mill, 1985 [1859]). However, once again, the utilitarian commitment to rights of liberty is conditional: we should protect rights of liberty, but only insofar as, in doing so, we best promote utility. Sharing lives, shaping values, and voluntary civic education233 We have also referred to the utilitarian approach to moral conflict (see Chapter 3). As we saw

in Evaluating parental power
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utilitarian can be understood as an expression of an underlying ontology. (For example, Dworkin in Taking Rights Seriously (1977) argues for the integrity of legislation and principle.) Or the utilitarian approach can assume that it grasps, not a universal ontology of the human, but the principles of modern rational social progress. Within broadly liberal institutions, in practice at least, the two approaches often work in tandem. The language of universal human rights imagines it is talking to and for all the world, calling on both the persistence

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
Dominant approaches

Rights (1948) gives some indication of this practical complementarity between contractarian and utilitarian approaches to rights. The language of the Universal Declaration is contractarian. The more frequent justification within UN and national policy-making bodies for upholding the rights standards set out in the Universal Declaration, however, is that most states have signed it, this signatory process being part of the essential procedures for establishing reasonable parameters of international order. The fund of imagery is contractarian while the language of

in Human rights and the borders of suffering
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paternalistic power, as utilitarianism shows that the duty to promote well-being is the fundamental moral claim. What is distinctive about this approach is that no limits are placed on ethical theory, as theoretical reflection, by itself, is sufficient to resolve moral conflicts and make moral judgements. More formally, the utilitarian approach to moral dilemmas is to give consequentialist principles lexical priority over non-consequentialist principles. According to Richard (R. M.) Hare, there are two levels of moral reasoning. The ‘intuitive’ level involves appeal to

in Evaluating parental power