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’; but as already mentioned, there may be myriad ways of interpreting and applying a public health conception. In the context of providing ART to HIV-infected individuals, a utilitarian approach could call for treating the greatest number of people, even if some (e.g. the sickest) could benefit only temporarily before their overall health status worsens. On this view, health benefits would be maximised even though the sickest people would receive a small amount of benefit. This would appear to be consistent with Harris’s equal opportunity principle. On a different and

in From reason to practice in bioethics

of these institutions, ever embodied what Irish society perceived as an ‘esprit critique’ is doubtful; however, the situation has changed somewhat since Irish universities began to keep students at university longer and increased the number of research positions. Séamas Ó Buachalla writes in 1992, in discussing the Irish state’s move since the 1960s to adopt a ‘more utilitarianapproach to education at both second and third levels, that ‘[a]lmost 30 years later it has not succeeded in shifting the curricular emphasis significantly towards subject areas which have

in The humanities and the Irish university
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communitarian perspectives. Which of these is the most convincing? Utilitarianism The utilitarian approach has been sketched most brilliantly by Derek Parfit (1984: 377) who begins with what he calls the Non-Identity Problem (N-IP): ‘If a choice between two social policies will affect the standard of living or the quality of life for about a century, it will affect the details of all the lives that, in our community, are later lived. As a result, some of those who later live will owe their existence to our choice of one of these two policies. After one or two centuries, this

in After the new social democracy