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concerned with down-to-earth improvements in the territories under his supervision, in addition to his literary and antiquarian pursuits. Conclusion To conclude, we can observe that neither the Romanticist nor the Utilitarian approach won complete sway in the policy decisions of the East India Company in India during the period between 1817 and 1857. While the Utilitarians (like James Mill

in Knowledge, mediation and empire
James Tod’s journeys among the Rajputs

James Tod (1782-1835) spent twenty-two years in India (1800-1822), during the last five of which he was Political Agent of the British Government in India to the Western Rajput States in north-west India. His book studies Tod’s relationships with particular Rajput leaders and with the Rajputs as a group in general, in order to better understand his attempts to portray their history, geographical moorings and social customs to British and European readers. The book highlights Tod’s apparently numerous motivations in writing on the Rajputs: to bring knowledge about the Rajputs into European circles, to demonstrate that the Rajputs maintained historical records from the early middle ages and were thus not a primitive people without awareness of their own history, and to establish possible ethnic links between the warrior-like Rajputs and the peoples of Europe, as also between the feudal institutions of Rajputana and Europe. Fierce criticisms in Tod’s time of his ethnic and institutional hypotheses about connections between Rajputs and Europeans illustrate that Tod’s texts did not leave his readers indifferent.

The approach adopted uses available documents to go beyond a binary opposition between the colonisers and the colonised in India, by focusing on traces of friendly exchanges between Tod and his British colleagues on the one hand, and on the other hand, various members of the kingdoms of western India, with whom they interacted. Under themes like landscape, anthropology, science, Romantic literature, approaches to government policy, and knowledge exchanges in India and in London, this volume analyses Tod’s role as a mediator of knowledge through his travels across a little-known part of the British Empire in the early 19th century.

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James Tod’s role in knowledge exchanges with the Rajputs

Chapter 5 , ‘Tod’s Romantic approach as opposed to James Mill’s Utilitarian approach to British government in India’, puts side by side the ideological contexts and publications of James Mill (1773–1836) and James Tod (1782–1835), which appear on the surface to be diametrically opposed. Mill never visited India, adhered to Jeremy Bentham’s rational Utilitarian philosophy and published in 1817 his History

in Knowledge, mediation and empire
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also all unexplored areas of the globe. Formal and informal empires were as one in this surge towards classification and the creation of the stratigraphical map of the world. As always, pure and utilitarian approaches were yoked in uneasy partnership, but geology’s power to release both precious metals like gold and more workaday resources like coal were crucial in the developing institutionalisation

in Imperialism and the natural world
Voyages through empirical, common sense

wherever possible. 66 As Professor David Arnold has observed, Tod’s enthusiasm for Indian categories and concepts, his use of ‘ethno-botany’ or incorporation of vernacular terms, local names and indigenous topographical markers, in his allusions to Rajasthani plant species, shows his basic empathy for the region of his adoption. On the other hand, Tod always adopts a utilitarian approach to plants

in Knowledge, mediation and empire

depictions showed emphasis chiefly on topographical accuracy linked to military surveying and a utilitarian approach to exotic species of vegetation and geological strata. Nevertheless atmospheric effects and melancholy meditations on ruins also had their place among British visual portrayals of India around Tod’s time, as for example in scenes drawn by William Hodges and Thomas and William Daniell. 3

in Knowledge, mediation and empire

extensively about schooling as a facet of colonisation, breathed new life into AOF education policy as governor-general. Brévié judged increased educational provision essential in the absence of a large settler population to propel economic modernisation. His utilitarian approach to schooling precluded access to a classic French educational curriculum to all but a privileged urban

in The French empire between the wars

made: that colonial perspectives were affected by their embrace of anthropology. There was a difference between the purely utilitarian approach to ethnographic data of the administrators and that of the anthropologist. As anthropological writing became more and more the product of professionals, so the anthropological output of administrators, too, began to conform more to these new standards

in Ordering Africa
Race and pedagogy, 1883–1903

located at schooling sites. Governance efficacy brought to India over two generations earlier by Utilitarian approaches meant that bureaucratic fiat could easily be used to do some of the work. For example, Eurasian schoolgirl enrolments grew as state education efforts were ‘centralised’, away from the mofussil in the 1870s, and new, urban, English-medium schools emerged. 2

in Learning femininity in colonial India, 1820–1932
Invented traditions and ideologies...

-Sudanese style found its way from metropolitan Europe back to the AOF, but that so, literally, had the building itself! The metal framework of Sandaga’s structure underwent a secondary use in that it was lifted from the AOF’s pavilion at the Marseille colonial exhibition in 1922. This was in spite of the exceptionally utilitarian approach of the colonial mind that this kind of import implies, as the head of

in French colonial Dakar