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J.W.M. Hichberger

The Crimean war (1854-56) was a watershed in civil-military relations. In previous wars, events had been followed only at some considerable distance, with the majority of the population aware of hostilities only in so far as they meant increased taxation or higher prices. During the forty years since Waterloo communications had reached new levels of speed and efficiency. The

in Images of the army

War, violence and divided societies Introduction War, violence and conflict necessarily provide the most extreme occasions for violations of human rights. The world wars of the twentieth century were the most destructive of human life and, in the case of the second world war, of human property, in recorded history. In Asia, the end of that war is also associated with struggles to achieve independence after what had been, in some cases, several centuries of colonial control. Though in most cases this was achieved fairly rapidly, that was not the end of the

in Art and human rights
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Between battlefield and fairground

Dada bodies focuses critical attention on Dada’s limit-forms of the human image from an international and interdisciplinary perspective, in its different centres (Zurich, Berlin, Cologne, Hanover, Paris and New York) and diverse media (art, literature, performance, photography and film). Iconoclastic or grotesque, a montage of disparate elements or reduced to a fragment, machine-part or blob, Dada’s bodily images are confronted here as fictional constructs rather than mimetic integrated unities. They act as both a reflection of, and a reflection on, the disjunctive, dehumanised society of wartime and post-war Europe, whilst also proposing a blueprint of a future, possible body. Through detailed analysis of works by Max Ernst, Francis Picabia, Hannah Höch, Marcel Duchamp and others, informed by recent theoretical and critical perspectives, the work offers a reassessment of the movement, arguing that Dada occupies an ambivalent space, between the battlefield (in the satirical exposure of the lies of an ideology that sought to clothe the corpse of wartime Europe) and the fairground (in the playful manipulation of the body and its joyful renewal through laughter, dream and dance).

The avant-garde and its Legacy

In 1909, the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti's Founding Manifesto of Futurism was published on the front page of Le Figaro. Between 1909 and 1912, the Futurists published works celebrating speed and danger, glorifying war and technology, and advocating political and artistic revolution. In Europe, this avant-garde movement was active in the field of painting and sculpture, theatre, photography and politics. This book reassesses the activities and legacies of Futurism. It looks at Futurist manifestos by linking techniques of promotion with practices in commercial advertising, and exploring the question of how Futurist manifestos address notions of genius and gender. The book also reconstructs the historical, cultural and ideological background of Marinetti's Manifesto del tattilismo. Zurich Dadaists adopted cultural stances heavily indebted to the terms of critical engagement and cultural visibility initiated within the Futurist circle. The book analyses avant-garde's examination of its internal strategies of identity and canonization, and the importance of Futurism for the Pierre Albert-Birot. It charts the details of the argument on simultaneity between Umberto Boccioni and Robert Delaunay, and analyses the critical readings of Fernand Léger's La noce. The dialogue between Occultism and Futurism is explored by discussing the theme of night in the works of the Florentine Futurists. In La cucina futurista, food is separated from its nutritional function, and the act of eating is related to notions of creativity and identity. The book presents unique examples of innovative expressivity in Italian Futurists' free-word poems, and examines poetry celebrating the triumph of modern aviation.

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Reconstruction and Soldier Settlement in the Empire Between the Wars

Research on soldier settlement has to be set within the wider history of emigration and immigration. This book examines two parallel but complementary themes: the settlement of British soldiers in the overseas or 'white' dominions, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa, between 1915 and 1930. One must place soldier settlement within the larger context of imperial migration prior to 1914 in order to elicit the changes in attitude and policy which occurred after the armistice. The book discusses the changes to Anglo-dominion relations that were consequent upon the incorporation of British ex-service personnel into several overseas soldier settlement programmes, and unravels the responses of the dominion governments to such programmes. For instance, Canadians and Australians complained about the number of ex-imperials who arrived physically unfit and unable to undertake employment of any kind. The First World War made the British government to commit itself to a free passage scheme for its ex-service personnel between 1914 and 1922. The efforts of men such as L. S. Amery who attempted to establish a landed imperial yeomanry overseas is described. Anglicisation was revived in South Africa after the second Anglo-Boer War, and politicisation of the country's soldier settlement was an integral part of the larger debate on British immigration to South Africa. The Australian experience of resettling ex-servicemen on the land after World War I came at a great social and financial cost, and New Zealand's disappointing results demonstrated the nation's vulnerability to outside economic factors.

Open Access (free)

This book can be described as an 'oblique memoir'. The central underlying and repeated themes of the book are exile and displacement; lives (and deaths) during the Third Reich; mother-daughter and sibling relationships; the generational transmission of trauma and experience; transatlantic reflections; and the struggle for creative expression. Stories mobilised, and people encountered, in the course of the narrative include: the internment of aliens in Britain during the Second World War; cultural life in Rochester, New York, in the 1920s; the social and personal meanings of colour(s). It also includes the industrialist and philanthropist, Henry Simon of Manchester, including his relationship with the Norwegian explorer, Fridtjof Nansen; the liberal British campaigner and MP of the 1940s, Eleanor Rathbone; reflections on the lives and images of spinsters. The text is supplemented and interrupted throughout by images (photographs, paintings, facsimile documents), some of which serve to illustrate the story, others engaging indirectly with the written word. The book also explains how forced exile persists through generations through a family history. It showcases the differences between English and American cultures. The book focuses on the incidence of cancers caused by exposure to radioactivity in England, and the impact it had on Anglo-American relations.

Marinetti and technological war

16 The dark side of Futurism: Marinetti and technological war Marja Härmänmaa Marja Härmänmaa The dark side of Futurism A survival strategy Marinetti was a specialist in war; as he wrote in 1942, he was ‘the only poet who specialised in modern war’ (Marinetti 1942: 2). Indeed, war was central in both Marinetti’s life and his work: he was actively engaged in warfare, participating in different capacities in four conflicts (Agnese 1990; Salaris 1997; Viola 2004; Guerri 2009).1 In his works, the topics of ‘destruction’ and ‘fighting’ in his pre-Futurist poems

in Back to the Futurists
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The military in British art, 1815-1914

In an age when engraving and photography were making artistic images available to a much wider public, artists were able to influence public attitudes more powerfully than ever before. This book examines works of art on military themes in relation to ruling-class ideologies about the army, war and the empire. The first part of the book is devoted to a chronological survey of battle painting, integrated with a study of contemporary military and political history. The chapters link the debate over the status and importance of battle painting to contemporary debates over the role of the army and its function at home and abroad. The second part discusses the intersection of ideologies about the army and military art, but is concerned with an examination of genre representations of soldiers. Another important theme which runs through the book is the relation of English to French military art. During the first eighty years of the period under review France was the cynosure of military artists, the school against which British critics measured their own, and the place from which innovations were imported and modified. In every generation after Waterloo battle painters visited France and often trained there. The book shows that military art, or the 'absence' of it, was one of the ways in which nationalist commentators articulated Britain's moral superiority. The final theme which underlies much of the book is the shifts which took place in the perception of heroes and hero-worship.

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J.W.M. Hichberger

and ‘70s the proportion had been roughly equal. Many late nineteenth-century reviewers did not make a distinction, and would discuss a Blenheim picture in the same category as a Sudan war subject. 1 Many of the battle painters discussed in this book worked on both historical and ‘contemporary’ subjects with equal ease. Richard Caton Woodville began his exhibiting career at the

in Images of the army
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Between gas mask and carnival dance

2 Zurich Dada: between gas mask and carnival dance Was wir zelebrieren ist eine Buffonade und eine Totenmesse zugleich. Hugo Ball (1996: 56)1 The European avant-garde and the First World War: from utopia to dystopia ‘We intend to glorify war – the only hygiene of the world’, declared the Italian poet Philippo Tommasso Marinetti in his ‘Founding and Manifesto of Futurism’, published in Paris on 20 February 1909 in Le Figaro (Rainey et al. 2009: 51). His statement epitomises the position of many of the avant-garde writers and artists of pre-1914 Europe, who

in Dada bodies