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Writing a little before 1470, Sir Thomas Malory drew a clear lesson for his own time from the tale of the civil war between King Arthur and Sir Mordred that destroyed the fellowship of the Round Table: Lo! you, all Englishmen. See you not what a mischief here was? For he that was the most King and noblest Knight of the world and most loved the fellowship of noble knights and by him they were all upholden, and yet might not these Englishmen hold them content with him. Lo! thus was the old custom and usages of this land, and men say that we of this land

in Political culture in later medieval England
Principles and practice

Few historical problems have received so much attention among those studying the modern period and so little attention among medieval scholars as that of peacemaking. In the medieval period, peace was intrinsically linked to Christianity. As peace was seen as the perfect realisation of the laws of God, peace in the medieval period also became a standard justification for war. This book develops Professor Christopher Holdsworth's ideas and to put these, and other, common themes into a wider context by examining two case studies: peacemaking involving the kings of England and their neighbours in Britain and on the continent; and that involving the kings of Denmark and their neighbours. For England, the investigation looks at the reigns of Henry II and his sons, Richard I and John, encompassing the period between 1154 and 1216. For Denmark, the focus is on the reigns of Valdemar I and his sons, Cnut VI and Valdemar II, thereby covering most of the period between 1157 and 1241. In 1177, the treaty of Winchester satisfied what both kings wanted to achieve at that particular time. At the heart of the medieval peacemaking process stood the face-to-face meeting.

Immigrant England, 1300–1550 provides a comprehensive account of the identities, nationalities, occupations, families and experiences of first-generation immigrants to England during the later Middle Ages. It addresses both official policy and public responses to immigration in the age of the Black Death, the Hundred Years War and the early Tudor monarchy, revealing how dramatic changes in the English economy fundamentally affected the levels of tolerance and discrimination allowed to immigrants.

Drawing on data unique in Europe before the nineteenth century, the book provides both a quantitative analysis of immigrants and a qualitative assessment of the reception that these incomers received from English society at large. Accounting for 1 per cent or more of the population of England in the fifteenth century and coming from all parts of Europe and beyond, immigrants spread out over the kingdom, settling in the countryside as well as in towns, and in a multitude of occupations from agricultural labourers to skilled craftspeople and professionals. Often encouraged and welcomed, sometimes vilified and victimised, immigrants were always on the social and political agenda in late medieval England.

England in its grip for the past sixty-­two years. England’s experienced and obdurate monarch, a man whose strength of will had driven a significant section of his baronage into revolt, was succeeded by a nine-­year-­old boy-­king Henry III. The circumstances of the civil war also undermined the stability of the English Crown, leaving it penniless and largely impotent in broad sections of the kingdom. The most decisive factor in the transformation of the character and nature of English kingship in this period, however, was that, at precisely the same time that the rebel

in Lordship in four realms

control their surroundings, both intensively (through tenure and the control of courts) and by tribute (receiving acknowledgements of superior status from their neighbours); all of these can be characterised as dimensions of ‘lordship’. 237 lordship The methods used depended on the pre-­existing social structures within each realm. Thus, while focusing on lordship in general, this chapter still remains sensitive to local variations. As aristocrats, one of the Lacys’ means to enforce lordship was war. Whether as captains in royal armies, or through the conquest and

in Lordship in four realms

army under Hannibal in the Second Punic War. Few traces of Roman structures remain visible in the modern city although much of the standard rectilinear street grid survives. The Po connected Cremona to the rest of the world, facilitated its prosperous commerce, and of course supplied its inhabitants with fish. Already in the ninth century salt from Comacchio and luxury goods from Venice were coming upstream, some of which continued on to Pavia and Milan, while raw materials were sent back downstream. In the same period the Carolingian rulers invested the bishop of

in Indispensable immigrants

displacement of people to other parts of France, but have not previously considered whether those prepared to declare themselves loyal to the Plantagenet cause also moved, in potentially significant numbers, across the Channel. 23 Prior to the 1430s, no grants of denization were issued to people specified as coming from Normandy; but in the 1440s and 1450s, nineteen were made. Following the end of the French war in 1453, there was a long period of diplomatic stand-off, but very little by way of active warfare: apart from Edward IV’s brief campaign in France in 1475, there

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550

’.111 67 hugh de lacy Conclusion Although Meath had been granted to him in 1172, it was not until 1177, when Henry II placed Hugh in charge of one-­third of the English colony, that the conquest of Meath began in earnest. From 1177, Hugh combined the administrative power vested in him with a pragmatic blend of war and diplomacy which spanned the cultural divide to imprint his lordship upon the Irish midlands. His progress shows that the conquest was not simply a case of native versus newcomer, and that aristocratic lordship was not exclusively based upon overt

in Lordship in four realms

died with him. Hugh de Lacy may have been a valuable asset worth courting during the civil war, and a member of the protected aristocratic elite for the duration of the Marshal’s regency, but, by the time of his return in 1221, those days had passed. Hugh was no stranger to conflict, and, if he could not walk back into his northern earldom, the experienced conquistador would take it by force. He first secured an alliance with two discontented western British figures, Llywelyn ab Iorwerth and Ranulf, earl of Chester and Lincoln. In 1222, styling himself ‘earl of

in Lordship in four realms
Abstract only
Immigrant England

activities and personal movements. In the 1440s, England went into a deep and prolonged economic recession, with a collapse of imports and exports, a major contraction in internal markets and a serious shortage of ready coin; signs of recovery did not become evident until the 1470s. 5 For much of the period under consideration, furthermore, England was at war. Hostilities with Scotland began in the 1290s as a result of Edward I’s attempts to take over the independent northern kingdom as an adjunct of England; although such aims were abandoned

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550