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Nantes and Henry III, 1574–89

Chap 5 19/6/06 9:47 am Page 117 5 Taxation, war and rebellion: Nantes and Henry III, 1574–89 In the city of Nantes, a marked feature of the reign of Charles IX after 1563 was the conscious attempt by the crown to resolve conflict and restore order through the use of legislation, judicial enforcement and the careful deployment of royal officers and agents. The creation of a municipality in the city was part of this policy. Relations between the new municipality and the crown were selfconsciously traditional; the king governed at least nominally through the

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98

This book explores the theory and practice of authority during the later sixteenth century, in the religious culture and political institutions of the city of Nantes, where the religious wars traditionally came to an end with the great Edict of 1598. The Wars of Religion witnessed serious challenges to the authority of the last Valois kings of France. In an examination of the municipal and ecclesiastical records of Nantes, the author considers challenges to authority, and its renegotiation and reconstruction in the city, during the civil war period. After a detailed survey of the socio-economic structures of the mid-sixteenth-century city, successive chapters detail the growth of the Protestant church, assess the impact of sectarian conflict and the early counter reform movement on the Catholic Church, and evaluate the changing political relations of the city council with the urban population and with the French crown. Finally, the book focuses on the Catholic League rebellion against the king and the question of why Nantes held out against Henry IV longer than any other French city.

Introduction This period saw the transformation of Leeds Jewry from a migrant community to a community of Englishmen of the Jewish persuasion. The impact of the Aliens Act of 1905 on the community, the slowdown of immigration and the rising proportion of English-born children all changed the face of the community. The outbreak of the First World War put the Jewish community in the political firing line, with discussions about Jewish loyalty in the local press. The period 1914–18 was one

in Leeds and its Jewish Community

Leeds Jewry on the eve of the Second World War By 1939, Jews had been living and working in Leeds for almost a century, with the largest influx between 1880 and 1914. There was still an older generation that remembered the move from Russia and Poland and spoke Yiddish, together with younger generations that had been born, educated and worked in Leeds. The Jewish population had spread from the Leylands to Chapeltown and Harehills, following the northern route from town up North Street, Chapeltown Road and

in Leeds and its Jewish Community

Chapter 9 From the Second World War to the Jacobs Affair in this book of the Chief Rabbis’ thought and policies from 1880 until 1945 enables us now to consider developments after that date in their proper context. Scholars have argued that there was a significant shift in the religious character of Anglo-Jewry between 1945 and about 1970, and we can examine whether that was indeed the case. The most significant event in Anglo-Jewish religious history in that period was the Jacobs Affair. It is around that controversy that most discussion is based, and I therefore

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
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Authority and society in sixteenth-century Nantes

and the inhabitants warned not to fire their arquebuses.1 Two weeks later, the king issued the famous edict of toleration for the Protestants of France that allowed them legal rights of worship and coexistence in the state. Nantes would henceforth be associated with the religious freedom of Huguenots and to be remembered as the place where the French wars of religion came to an end. The aim of this study is to explore the city context of these events, the motives for Nantes’ participation in the religious wars and for its revolt against the crown in 1589, and why

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98
Crown, conseil and municipality in the early religious wars, 1559–74

Chap 4 19/6/06 9:47 am Page 85 4 City governance in crisis: crown, conseil and municipality in the early religious wars, 1559–74 In the work of Bernard Chevalier, the relationship between cities and the royal state in sixteenth-century France is characterised by rise and fall. He argues that during the reigns of Francis I and Henry II royal authority over cities increased. Military affairs were put in the hands of specialists, crown supervision of justice and police was extended with the creation of more officers, and the kings eroded urban fiscal resources

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98
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Authority and society in Nantes during the religious wars

Chap 8 19/6/06 9:49 am Page 208 8 Conclusions: authority and society in Nantes during the religious wars On 30 April 1598 the last edict of pacification of the wars of religion was issued in the château of Nantes.1 The municipality had little part in its creation.2 Of greater concern to the city’s elite was Henry IV’s order for new elections to the bureau de ville, to take place on 1 May. The king dissolved the privilege that allowed Nantes to elect its own mayor and échevins. Instead, three candidates for mayor and eighteen for the échevinage were to be

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98

3 Arab liberals between the struggle against despotism and the war against Zionism Arab liberals, Zionism and Israel Rationalism and pragmatism have been the two cornerstones of Arab liberalism from its dawn to contemporary times. Arab liberals have defined themselves as the standard-bearers of empirical science, technological development and social progress; those who look toward the future instead of dwelling on the past, and pave a way that is not strewn with solacing traditions, inebriating fantasies and far-fetched wishes. However, rationality and

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Catholicism in Nantes, 1560–89

Chap 6 19/6/06 9:48 am Page 151 6 The authority of tradition: Catholicism in Nantes, 1560–89 In 1600, with the religious wars over and Brittany once more at peace, a young Bohemian traveller visited Nantes. He admired the fortifications and convents of the city and observed that the Breton towns were ‘more rigorous that any others in their observance of the Catholic faith, such that . . . everyone, even the sick, is forbidden, and indeed refuses, to eat meat on fast days’.1 Yet in the 1550s and 1560s there arose a Protestant movement which attracted up to

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98