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Through feminine eyes

historical. For it is precisely the haunting of Empire that, as previously mentioned, resonates in the Hispanic and the Lusophone, as well as with regard to the position of women in such ideological contexts, and so it is to this haunting that we must first turn. The haunting of empire and patriarchy The spread of the Iberian empire, concomitant as it was with the Catholic Reconquest of 1492, was predicated on

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers
Questioning gender roles

it is certainly the case that unlike their British counterparts French princes and princesses not only ‘live happily ever after’, but also ‘have many children’ (ils vécurent heureux et eurent beaucoup d’enfants). The influence of this powerful ideology of motherhood should not be underestimated. Is there, one can ask, any alternative for French women to the historically accepted and conventional function of women as mothers, considering the importance of the indirect propaganda in this regard (be it political or religious), and

in Coline Serreau
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fellow director Christine Pascal, whom she considered to be a kind of second sister. I will study the impact of a gender-conservative family environment and a strict religious upbringing, and then the countervailing influence of the Women’s Liberation Movement on Breillat when she moved from the provinces to Paris. My discussion of Breillat’s films will connect them to feminist writings by Beauvoir, Hélène Cixous, Claire Duchen, Juliet Mitchell, Anita Phillips and Susan Bordo as well as to male gender studies by Elisabeth Badinter, Pierre Bourdieu and Daniel Welzer

in Catherine Breillat

listener/ spectator, especially due to its highly reactionary and ultra-Catholic ideology. Some of his most popular titles include El padre cura ( The Father Priest ), El milagro de San Cornelio ( The Miracle of San Cornelio ), La España de pandereta ( Traditional Spain ), all of them very much in keeping with Penella’s religious and traditional universe. His Huelga de señoras

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers
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ramifications of religious fundamentalism. Inter alia he interviewed ‘born-again’ Christians, looked at the careers of 107 108 The documentary diaries Jim and Tammy Bakker, and the pursuit of money under the guise of requesting religious donations. In a later film Celibacy, Antony investigated the whole question of celibacy for ordained clergy in the Catholic church. In his opinion the thousand year-old doctrine had parallels in the Church’s attack on Galileo, who argued the earth went round the sun, not vice versa. Eventually the church came round to acknowledging

in The documentary diaries
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Coline Serreau and politics (1972–96)

change, while only one seems convinced – even if she sounds as if she were trying to convince herself – that women should accept their lot which is to have and raise children. Be they farmers, working class, middle class, porn actress, anorexic, caretaker or retired pastor, they all illustrate a form of oppression and repression, either economic, sexual, physical or religious. Some can name and identify it while others would probably be surprised if told that their claims are the same as the MLF’s. None is a self-confessed feminist

in Coline Serreau

fandom, the body and Latino patriarchy. Portillo’s most highly acclaimed documentary to date is the award-winning Señorita Extraviada ( Missing Young Woman , 2001), a compelling investigation of the phenomenon of feminicide – the murder and disappearance of hundreds of women – in the border city of Ciudad Juárez Chihuahua, Mexico. From her perspective as a US-based Latina, Portillo has

in Hispanic and Lusophone women filmmakers

Bardot in the film. 51 ‘I always masturbate with my legs closed tight. … I’m not capable of offering myself. I rape myself’. 52 ‘a specific and deeply ingrained reluctance with regard to masturbation persists among women with religious ties, particularly among Catholics. The repeated condemnation even today of this practice by the Church, which only women have internalised, is a survival of the Augustinian rejection of pleasure, considered as all the more condemnable here since it is obtained outside of a union’. staging masochism, facing shame 121 where Marie

in Catherine Breillat

María García Escudero appears to concur with this view, but then it becomes clear that he is writing in response to a message from Pope Pío XII to the effect that in cinema, the aim is to ‘convertir un rayo de luz en un rayo de Dios’ (convert a ray of light into a ray of divine love). Cinema, then, can have an evangelising function. Interpreting the Pope’s words ‘for Catholics’, García Escudero informs the reader that this means, ‘educar, producir’: making more good-quality films, not more religious films, and simultaneously educating the viewer into how to read films

in The child in Spanish cinema

this very sickness of self-loathing that prompts Alice’s dawning realisation that it is not her body, but others’ negative view of it, that is unnatural and obscene. ‘Le dégoût me rend lucide’,25 thinks Alice, and this is the moment she begins to write in a diary about the conflict within her between desire and disgust. Opening her Catholic school notebook and writing in red ink using the pen she got for her first communion, Alice challenges her repressive religious upbringing and expresses her physicality as if she were writing in menstrual blood. ‘C’est beau d

in Catherine Breillat