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moments in the Second World War. A similar fluidity in the significance of clothing occurs in religious identity. In medieval and Catholic Europe, simple dress was part of the identity of monks, friars, and nuns, and if there was colour, it was often black or brown. The Protestant reaction in and after the European Reformation distanced itself from what it saw as the excesses of the Catholic church by adopting its own version of the very visual signs of Catholic monasticism: simple clothes, absence of colour, preference for black

in Cultivating political and public identity

of religious social capital. Gort’s Brazilian community consisted of Pentecostals, Mormons and Catholics. The Pentecostal congregation, Assembléia de Deus, set up a church in the area and was responsible for the annual summer carnival; it catered for ‘approximately 150 attendees on any given night’. The Brazilian Catholic community was ministered to by a Limerick-based priest who had worked for twenty years in Brazil; he said mass in Portuguese every Sunday in the local Catholic church. Both supplied spiritual, emotional and concrete support to their members. The

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland
The next Lansbury generation and Labour politics, 1881–1951

10 ‘We never trained our children to be socialists’: the next Lansbury generation and Labour politics, 1881–19511 John Shepherd The Christian socialist, pacifist, feminist, anti-imperialist and republican, George Lansbury MP – at the helm of the Labour Party from 1932 to 1935 – was imprisoned twice for his political beliefs.2 He recalled that in 1913 at least six children from his large family were in prison or in danger of going to jail for their political activities during the struggle for ‘votes for women’.3 The eldest, Annie and William, served one and two

in Labour and working-class lives
A comparison

Irish nationalists had some success, as did the Conservatives in certain areas of north-west England populated by (often Catholic) ‘working-class Tories’. Although various social organisations did become more class specific in their membership and a former mix of classes disappeared after 1870, as in the case of the Volunteers’ Associations in Edinburgh, working-class and middle-class club and society members continued to participate in one and the same religious and church activities in many parts of Britain.16 What struck on-looking German contemporaries who lived

in Labour and working-class lives

6 Education and segregation What varieties of men and women now prevail in this society and in this period? And what varieties are coming to prevail? In what ways are they selected and formed, liberated and oppressed, made sensitive and blunted? (C. Wright Mills)1 In a widely reported speech in April 2008, Archbishop Diarmuid Martin, patron of the Catholic schools which comprise well over 90 percent of Dublin’s ­educational system, criticised Catholics who withdrew their children from schools with immigrant pupils: ‘I hear of parents – even those who might fit

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland

Protestant and Catholic recruits. Simultaneously, the report’s recommendations increased the number of women in the PSNI through the implementation of a gender quota. The increased number of Catholic recruits transformed the nature of the organisation into a more ‘localised’ force in relation to the Catholic community. One of the report’s recommendations stated that ‘police stations built from now on should have, so far as possible, the appearance of ordinary buildings’. 7 The altered police force (and even the deliberate use of the word ‘service’ rather than ‘force’) was

in Unfinished business
Open Access (free)

is a further dimension to Puritanism: it followed from the priesthood of all believers, in that any one of the faithful could, and should, express his or her faith through appearance. The eighteenth century, whilst frequently seen as a time of fading religious enthusiasm whose character was simply emphasised by the contrary zeal of Methodism, began with legislative assertion of religious identity at the pinnacle of public life. No one could ascend to or occupy the throne who was a Roman Catholic, and the monarch must be in communion with the

in Cultivating political and public identity
The Progressive League and the quest for sexual reform in British politics, 1932–59

control would lead to more women usurping men in the workplace. Unemployment insurance was extended in 1930, favouring men and further disadvantaging women.69 Women’s opinions and influence in the Party remained secondary. Overwhelming mandates from women’s sections over birth control and women’s unemployment, among other issues, were regularly ignored.70 Additionally, there was fear that persistent opposition from religious bodies, notably the Roman Catholic Church, would have a detrimental effect on the Labour vote.71 Change was gradual. 1930s Labour Party leader

in Labour and working-class lives

School in County Wexford sought guidelines from the Department of Education on the wearing of the hijab by Muslim schoolgirls. The issue had also exercised the local Gaelic Athletic Association club (Naomh Enna), which decided to allow the girls to wear hijabs underneath their protective helmets when playing camogie (the women’s equivalent of the sport of hurling). Groups such as the Joint Management Body for Secondary Schools and the Management Association of Catholic Secondary Schools advised schools not to make an issue of school uniform rules where these conflict

in Immigration and social cohesion in the Republic of Ireland
Open Access (free)
The autonomous life?

intensively together on the legal margins of a tiny, wealthy, northern European, highly bureaucratized, multicultural city dominated by religious and ethnic tensions, the autonomous life is more often complex and fraught than liberatory and utopic. Historical context of the squatters movement in Amsterdam In this section, I will first review the main sources from which I have constructed this narrative, then present a critical historiography, followed by an overview of the main points of this history. I

in The autonomous life?