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Editor: Peter Goddard

This collection brings together work on forms of popular television produced within the authoritarian regimes of Europe after World War II. Ten chapters based on new and original research examine approaches to programming and individual programmes in Spain, Greece, Czechoslovakia, Romania, the Soviet Union and the GDR at a time when they were governed as dictatorships or one-party states. Rather than foregrounding the political economy of television or its role as an overt tool of state propaganda, the focus is on popular television-everyday programming that ordinary people watched. An editorial introduction examines the question of what can be considered ‘popular’ when audience appeal is often secondary to the need for state control. With familiar measures of popularity often absent, contributors adopt various approaches in applying the term to the programming they examine and in considering the reasons for its popularity. Drawing on surviving archives, scripts and production records, contemporary publications, YouTube clips, and interviews with producers and performers, its chapters recover examples of television programming history unknown beyond national borders and often preserved largely in the memories of the audiences who lived with them. Popular Television in Authoritarian Europe represents a significant intervention in transnational television studies, making these histories available to scholars for the first time, encouraging comparative enquiry and extending the reach – intellectually and geographically – of European television history.

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Editor: Andrew Spicer

This book aims to provide an overview of the history and development of film noir and neo-noir in five major European cinemas, France, Britain, Germany, Spain and Italy, written by leading authorities in their respective fields. It contains a bibliography and extensive filmography. The book describes the distinctiveness of film noir or neo-noir within its respective national cinema at particular moments, but also discusses its interaction with American film noir and neo-noir. It commences with a reflection on the significant similarities and differences that emerge in these accounts of the various European film noirs, and on the nature of this dialogue, which suggests the need to understand film noir as a transnational cultural phenomenon. The problems of defining film noir and the reasons why it has almost always been regarded solely as an American form are discussed. Because British film noir had never received critical recognition, Andrew Spicer argues that British neo-noir had to reinvent itself anew, with little, if any, explicit continuity with its predecessors. The book also explores the changes in the French polar after 1968: the paranoia of the political thriller and the violence of the postmodern and naturalistic thriller. That new noir sensibility is different enough, and dark enough, from what preceded it, for us to call it 'hyper-noir'. British neo-noirs are highly intertextual and allusive, both thematically and visually. The book also discusses German neo-noir, Spanish film noir and neo-noir, and the Italian film noir.

Eurimages and the Funding of Dystopia

Since its inception by the Council of Europe in 1989, Eurimages has been to the fore in financing European co-productions with the aim of fostering integration and cooperation in artistic and industry circles and has helped finance over 1,600 feature films, animations and documentaries. Taking as its thesis the idea that the CoE seeks to perpetuate Europes utopian ideals, despite the dystopian realities that frequently undermine both the EU and the continent at large, this article analyses select Eurimages-funded dystopian films from industrial, aesthetic and socio-cultural standpoints with a view toward decoding institutionally embedded critiques of the European project.

Film Studies

European horror films have often been characterised by a tendency towards co-production arrangements. Recent developments within regional European funding bodies and initiatives have led to a proliferation of films that combine traditional co-production agreements with the use of both regional and intra-regional funding sources. This article examines the extent to which the financial structuring of Creep(Christopher Smith, 2004), Salvage (Lawrence Gough), and Trollhunter (André Øvredal, 2010) informed the trajectory of their production dynamics, impacting upon their final form. Sometimes, such European horror films are part of complex co-production deals with multiple partners or are derived from one-off funding project. But they can also utilise funding schemes that are distinctly local.

Film Studies
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European film noir aims to provide an overview of the history and development of film noir and neo-noir in five major European cinemas – France, Britain, Germany, Spain and Italy – written by leading authorities in their respective fields. Each chapter contains a bibliography and extensive filmography. Occasional brief considerations of various European film noirs have emerged – and one

in European film noir
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Popular television in authoritarian Europe – a popular conundrum?

1 Introduction: Popular television in authoritarian Europe – a popular conundrum? Peter Goddard In the second half of the twentieth century, television emerged as the dominant cultural form in much of the world. By the 1980s, the academic study of television was beginning to emerge as a dedi­ cated area of scholarship, dominated – as was television production in large parts of the globe – by the USA and Britain. Perhaps as a result, the television cultures and programmes that developed under the authoritarian regimes of Southern and Eastern Europe have been

in Popular television in authoritarian Europe
Biting into the Global Myth

This article discusses the manner in which the vampire fiction of contemporary Ukrainian author Halyna Pahutiak enters into a dialogue with the global vampire discourse whose core or ‘cultural capital’ finds its origins largely in Bram Stoker’s novel Dracula (1897). Through discussion of thematic, stylistic, and structural similarities and differences between Pahutiak and Stoker’s portrayals of the vampire myth, my paper sheds light on the conscious mythmaking strategies that Pahutiak employs to return the vampire symbolically from the West to Eastern Europe where it originated, and reassess the core characteristics of the Dracula myth.

Gothic Studies

chapter argues, prove crucial for the construction of identities, particularly those with a territorial dimension. It does so by exploring European ‘films of voyage’, a cinematic tradition that articulates, both narratively and visually, representations of the countryside with questions of boundaries and cultural diversity. European ‘films of voyage’ show how ethnic or cultural

in Cinematic countrysides
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of generic conventions into the text. No other country has the problem of using a term of another colour which covers film noir, several media and many genres. Moreover, the European style of filmmaking with its use of the long take rather than fast cutting, the visual flair of Italian genre films which, even in low-budget examples, can combine realism of place with spectacular mise-en-scène has made

in European film noir

had quickly established a stronghold in the German market after the war, West German audiences on the whole preferred domestic and other European products to Hollywood fare well into the late 1960s. 6 The East German reception of American noir during the same period, meanwhile, owing to cold war ideology, censorship, and politically motivated patterns of distribution and exhibition, was even more muted, to the point of being insignificant

in European film noir