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disease in the context of burgeoning global modernities of the long nineteenth century. The concept of ‘modernity’, often defined exclusively by its Western or European model, is of course a relative term, often predicated on a break with the past across social, cultural, political, and economic institutions, and conferred by historians as a means of determining major shifts in orientation. 20 L. S. Jacyna, in his recent work on medicine and modernism, contends that historians have typically employed this term in such a

in Progress and pathology
Suriname and the Netherlands, 1863– 1890

received new impetus in the 1890s. Compulsory segregation still existed between 1863 and 1890, but execution was lax. 120 120 Leprosy and colonialism This chapter examines Dutch debates about leprosy between 1863 and 1890. The debates took place when the threat of a ‘return’ of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. This was ironic, since Dutch policy makers and doctors had to call upon medical expertise from Suriname at the same time as the Europeans were having medical debates about the validity of a contagionist theory for leprosy. In the Dutch East

in Leprosy and colonialism
Historiographical and research political reflections

surprise to most people that Denmark and other North European countries such as, e.g., Sweden had a eugenic past as well. Newspapers, radio stations, TV, magazines and academic conferences were continuously asking for interviews and comments and seemed ready to publish almost anything I had to say about the issue. The interest in eugenics in this period was prompted by the heavy public and private investments in the mapping of the human genome in

in Communicating the history of medicine
Daktar Binodbihari Ray Kabiraj and the metaphorics of the nineteenth-century Ayurvedic body

ensured. Nowhere is this refusal of coevalness more conspicuous today than in overviews of the history of medicine. A 2008 work entitled Medicine and Modernism , for instance, has this to say about the conundrum of the modern: ‘“Modernity” and “modernization” are terms that historians use to refer to the interrelated series of economic, social, and political transformations that occurred in western societies during the period of the long nineteenth century. Urbanization, industrialization, and the spread of market capitalism were

in Progress and pathology
Abstract only

dysgenic to eugenic birth control’, Birth Control Review 2:7 (1935), 2–3; H.H. Laughlin, ‘Further studies on the historical and legal development of eugenical sterilization in the United States’, Journal of Psycho-­Asthenics 41 (1936), 98. 28 See K. Calavita, U.S. Immigration Law and the Control of Labor: 1820–1924 16 INTRODUCTION (London: Academic Press, Inc., 1984), pp. 107–13; testimony of H.H. Laughlin, 8 March 1924, in Europe as an Emigrant-­Exporting Continent and the United States as an Immigrant Receiving Nation, U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on

in Framing the moron
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"Experience" and "theory" in debates over forensic knowledge and expertise in early twentieth-century China

practices that supported the legal system of Meiji Japan. The focus of their interest was legal medicine (hōigaku/fayixue, 法醫學), a branch of scientific medicine that used medical knowledge to address problems encountered in the law, including the forensic examination of dead and living bodies.18 Legal medicine was practiced in Japanese and continental European academic institutes equipped with facilities for the forms of laboratory investigation that had become a crucial epistemological foundation of scientific medicine by the start of the twentieth century.19 It was in

in Historical epistemology and the making of modern Chinese medicine

, this claim could be disputed. Modern leprosy politics in the twentieth century were a Janus head. On the one side, the politics were based on the latest developments and fashion in medical views on leprosy: sufferers should be treated as patients, not as criminals; medical treatment in asylums and in outpatient clinics should be encouraged; and a humane organization of life in the asylums should be promoted. However, unlike in other colonies, such as British India or the Dutch East Indies, the idea of compulsory segregation was never abandoned. Sufferers with non-​European

in Leprosy and colonialism
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War and medicine in World War I Germany

of these attitudes on the population.31 One cannot help but wonder: how did the self-perceptions of these doctors translate into medical, military, or social policy towards others? What material impact did this medical discourse have on civilians, on soldiers, on military organisation? The recent collection War, Trauma, and Medicine in Introduction 7 Germany and Central Europe (1914–1939) focuses specifically on how the war impacted on the practice, experience, and development of military medicine in the armies of the Central Powers. The essays in this book

in Recycling the disabled

  – and heterogeneous, even conflictual within this purified space – there was another interlocutor present. That was western medicine in all its ontological modernism.15 (One could add more interlocutors, of course: the history of European technologies in imperialism, the global claims and authority of the European natural sciences, global images of weak and unmanly Chinese bodies, Maoist pragmatics and activism, the Cold Damage/Warm Illnesses contrast stemming from the regional intellectual lineages of those present  – one could go on and on; it was a crowded hospital

in Historical epistemology and the making of modern Chinese medicine

anatomy in Europe. Since then, however, the rubric of medicalization has been appropriated and deployed more frequently by sociologists of medicine. As evident in the subtitle of the definitive book, The Medicalization of Society: On the Transformation of Human Conditions into Treatable Disorders (2007), written by Peter Conrad, one of the first sociologists to popularize the concept, “medicalization” refers to “a process by which nonmedical problems become defined and treated as medical problems, usually in terms of illness or disorders.”43 For Conrad, what deserves

in Historical epistemology and the making of modern Chinese medicine