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Database, the Foxe Project or the ODNB. There is a concern that the normal critical faculties of academics have been suspended when faced with glossy and well-organized databases of this kind: it is as well to remember that a database of any kind is only as good as the source materials upon which it draws, and the organization and accessibility of the data. -Isms New -isms became prominent from the 1950s onwards: modernism, postmodernism, deconstructionism, feminism and receptionism being five of the most important for our subject. The modernist trend emerged in the

in The Debate on the English Reformation

an orthodoxy based on tradition rather than definition. No public statement was issued. Rather, the Congregations pursued a policy of silent censure and condemnation.In 1894,M.D.Leroy’s Evolution des espèces was condemned by the Index at the instigation of the Jesuit newspaper La Civilta Cattolica. The paper had been founded in the 1850s by Pius IX and, since the publication of Origin of Species, had fought a running battle with evolutionists in Europe and America. Leroy’s work was found to be in error but the Index resisted issuing a public definition of orthodoxy

in Michael Logue and the Catholic Church in Ireland, 1879–1925
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‘This is your hour’

Then Jesus said unto the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, which were come to him, Be ye come out, as against a thief, with swords and staves? When I was daily with you in the temple, ye stretched forth no hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness. Luke 22:52–3 In the foreboding political atmosphere of late 1930s Europe

in This is your hour

Faith’s social meaning had to be actively discovered . Murry saw the Moot as agreeing that ‘the Christian mind’ was ‘something which is created (or more truly re-created ) in us by our knowledge of reality’. 2 Gilbert Shaw urged a ‘rebirth’ of social Christianity rather than a recovery of earlier models (such as ‘medievalism’). 3 Europe awaited, a CNL essay insisted, ‘a new Reformation’. 4 Oldham saw the CNL ’s mission as ‘to define a faith and purpose’, combining ‘new’ aspects with rediscovered ‘lost’ ones. 5 Mannheim also saw a need to ‘re-state’ the faith

in This is your hour
Keeping the crusades up to date

could combine together in new syntheses. Nonetheless, the most striking feature of post-Enlightenment 95 THE DEBATE ON THE CRUSADES investigation of the crusades was, as von Sybel had hinted, a willingness to marry the crusades to contemporary obsessions and experience. Just as the Reformation had done, so the French and Industrial Revolutions fundamentally recast debates and understanding of crusading’s nature and significance. The crusades could be regarded as the antithesis of modernism, whether that was considered good or bad, matching an astonishing range of

in The Debate on the Crusades
Women as citizens

current. Though not identical, there is a remarkable symmetry between the views of European corporations and imperia in early modernism and today. The attitude that regards veiling as either hostile, submissive, traditional or unmodern, in other words that regards gender issues as a cultural difference that needs to be eradicated, is not contemporary or an anomaly. It is rooted in historical legal and epistemological categories from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that construct European civilization as both foundational and normative. These categories and

in Postcolonial minorities in Britain and France
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Street photography, humanism and the loss of innocence

  70 4 Refracted visions: Street photography, humanism and the loss of innocence Justin Carville In 1999, the Belfast-​based design historian David Brett published a short pithy book on the influence of what Max Weber described as ‘Protestant asceticism’ on architectural design and material culture in post-​Reformation Europe and North America (Brett, 1999; Weber 2002: 112–​22). In the preface to the expanded second edition, Brett acknowledged that the original book was written in the context of the Troubles and his interest in the possibility of a scientific

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
Church, State and modernity in contemporary Ireland

‘Christendom’, which he defines as ‘a civilisation where the structures, institutions, and culture were all supposed to reflect the Christian nature of the society’ (Taylor 1999: 17). In its purest form, this was the confessional state, long the norm across Europe, in which throne and altar were united so that the law privileged a particular Christian Church and enforced its moral teachings. Over several centuries, however, secularism weakened this arrangement and eventually ‘dethroned’ Christendom, a process that often involved violence, especially in Catholic countries

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
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occupied Europe. Communications were easier with the USA, such as with Niebuhr’s Christianity and Crisis , which acted as a partner to The Christian News-Letter . These Christian efforts took place in an even wider media context. Christian newspapers and journals of course addressed religious viewpoints on the war and society, but so did more secular media. The Times and the Manchester Guardian regularly carried statements by senior clergy and gave Christian views on the war and post-war rebuilding. (A prominent joint statement by

in This is your hour
Beyond ‘ghettos’ and ‘golden ages’

have left behind the ghetto complexes of a poor and largely immigrant community.8 Calling for a reappraisal of its place in a Britain where ‘people … have to see themselves and think of themselves increasingly as European’, the leader adjudged: It must be said that each of the three great streams which have made the English Catholic river of today has had its special inhibitions; the old Catholics had learnt a tradition of reticence, the Irish Catholics a tradition of belligerence, and the converts a tradition of avowed and sharp controversy: and the approach called

in Faith in the family