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Paul Fouracre
Richard A. Gerberding

permanent bureaucracies, paid troops and aristocratic magistrates who had vast rural estates but who lived in the cities and were the guiding force of the urban culture. Medieval culture, on the other hand, is not urban but rural. Medieval Europe, to be sure, had its urban centres, but they were generally small by Roman standards. By the seventh century they no longer housed Europe’s

in Late Merovingian France