Search results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 173 items for :

  • French literature x
  • Manchester History of Medicine x
Clear All

This book seeks to challenge the notion of the supremacy of the brain as the key organ of the Enlightenment. It is done by focusing on the workings of the bowels and viscera that so obsessed writers and thinkers during the long eighteenth-century. These inner organs and the digestive process acted as counterpoints to politeness and other modes of refined sociability, drawing attention to the deeper workings of the self. The book complicates the idea that discourses and representations of digestion and bowels are confined to so-called consumption culture of the long eighteenth century, in which dysfunctional bowels are categorised as a symptom of excess. It offers an interdisciplinary and cross-cultural perspective on entrails and digestion by addressing urban history, visual studies, literature, medical history, religious history, and material culture in England, France, and Germany. The book explores the metaphorical and symbolic connections between the entrails of the body and the bowels of the city or the labyrinthine tunnels of the mine. It then illustrates the materiality of digestion by focusing on its by-products and their satirical or epistemological manifestations. The book expounds further on the burlesque motif of the innards as it is used to subvert areas of more serious knowledge, from medical treatises to epic literature or visual representation. Finally, it focuses on drawings, engravings and caricatures which used the bowels, viscera and entrails to articulate political protest, Revolutionary tensions and subversion through scatological aesthetics, or to expose those invisible organs.

Open Access (free)
The hygienic utopia in Jules Verne, Camille Flammarion, and William Morris

the fear of dirt and led to an increased obsession with cleanliness. 16 The topic is all but absent within French studies, however, as far as the study of literature is concerned. Laporte's Histoire de la merde (1978), and to a lesser extent Corbin's Le Miasme et la jonquille (1986), are historical studies which do not focus on literary texts. 17 Scholarship on the complex nexus between dirt and hygiene and on their role in

in Progress and pathology
Abstract only

, cultural traditions of debate had a profound influence on the meetings and publications of societies. In the literature, a British tradition of ‘gentlemanly debate,’ conducted behind 8 Medical societies and scientific culture closed doors and rarely published in minutes, has been contrasted to a French tradition, in which a more confrontational style was adopted both during debates and in the (scientific) press.19 Belgium forms a well-suited case study to scrutinize the impact of liberal freedoms on the development of the medical sciences in nineteenth-century Europe

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium

belongs to all of us, but is no one’s property.’70 This new science was to be established collectively. A second difference between ‘Belgian’ medical societies and their predecessors lies in their networks and mode of communication. After the Belgian Revolution, French became the official language of government administration. The medical world soon followed: Flemish 28 Medical societies and scientific culture disappeared in the medical literature.71 At the same time, the intellectual ties with the Netherlands were cut. Only from the 1840s onwards, after the Treaty

in Medical societies and scientific culture in nineteenth-century Belgium
Prostheses for women in nineteenth-century literature and commerce

, function correctly and resist wear and tear. Indeed, in the 1850s and 1860s, French artificial-​eye maker Auguste Boissonneau, who 13 Prostheses for women in literature and commerce 131 was very much a market leader in Europe at the time, described in his 1854 British patent specification an important innovation that made his artificial eyes, to use the words of the Punch poem, ‘impervious to the tear’: ‘[by means of a notch or aperture] on any point of the inferior palpebral section of the artificial eye[,]‌… communication is established between the internal and

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
Abstract only
Entrails and digestion in the eighteenth century

and modes of understanding are stimulated and converge in the debate over the stomach. It shows how literature, medicine, history and visual satire participate in a medical quarrel over the cultural centrality and significance of gastric function. Similarly, the French inventor Vaucanson’s aspiration to create a digestive automaton, and the success of his famous ‘digesting duck’ – a machine that claimed to reproduce the digestive process – also highlight the general interest in the invisible workings of the viscera and their representations in eighteenth

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
Hajj, cholera and Spanish–Moroccan regeneration, 1890–99

3 Mending ‘Moors’ in Mogador: Hajj, cholera and Spanish–Moroccan regeneration, 1890–99 Francisco Javier Martínez Introduction In the summer of 1896, two very different groups of people crammed into the tiny 500 × 300 metres uninhabited islet located in front of the Moroccan port of Essaouira (Mogador for Europeans, see Figure 3.1). The first and most numerous group consisted of the 1,653 hajjis (Muslim pilgrims) debarked in notoriously insanitary conditions from the French steamer Gergovia, owned by the Compagnie Fabre et Cie of Marseilles.1 As the sultans of

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914

15  The saints of the entrails and the bowels of the earth Jacques Gélis Introduction: folk representations of the belly in eighteenth-century France Eighteenth-century studies of the body are very often focused on urban societies, in which bodies were in close contact with each other and were connected with a growing community in which trades and industries, fortunes and fashions developed and changed rapidly. We tend to forget the bodies of rural communities, which were still primarily understood in terms of analogical and symbolical thought. Agrarian

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century

by the time it infected the thirty-​one-​year-​old Alfonso XIII, the French, US, British and German armies had already been depleted by influenza. Wartime censorship prevented these stories from appearing in newsprint, as neither side wanted to alert the other to its weakness. The pandemic severely disrupted the work of the Paris Peace Conference, which was held to negotiate a lasting peace, as delegation after delegation fell prey to influenza over several months, including the three leaders, David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson. It is too

in Stacking the coffins

Arab-Muslims as vectors of such epidemics. This corroborated the deeply rooted stereotyped image of the ‘Muslim-Arab’ pilgrim which, as argued above, had been in circulation through Orientalist literature118 – mainly in travellers’ accounts, but also in works on medical topography and other ‘scientific’ narratives – which depicted the Hejaz as ‘barren and retarded’.119 Echoing this growing aversion towards Muslims in Europe was the French hygienist Adrien Proust (1834–1903), when in 1873 he wrote that Europeans were ‘every year, at the mercy of the pilgrimage to

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914